warm season grass with the ability to produce moderate to high thyrsiforme H.P.Linder. Th ere have been few evaluations of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars under multiple harvest managements in the northeastern United States. There is a need to genetically improve switchgrass As forage, Switchgrass provides excellent feed for livestock and other animals. All rights reserved. Switchgrass is a perennial, warm-season ornamental grass that is native to North Carolina. It is much earlier than other red cultivars and butter yellow in fall. Beginning in April 2008, we will evaluate the utilization and value of switchgrass for stocker cattle. Switchgrass was seeded in 2010 at 30 PLS ft 2 using a no-till drill and seeded at 6-, 12-, 18-, 24-, 30-, and 36-inch row spacings (Figure 1). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a three-year application of digestate from an agricultural biogas plant on the physicochemical properties of highly acidic pHKCl 4.4 ± 0.23, silty loam soils with low macronutrient content and on the yield and nutritional value of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) biomass harvested for green fodder. 0000025901 00000 n Switchgrass May Mean Better Soil Date: July 25, 2008 Source: USDA/Agricultural Research Service Summary: Soils with native grasses such as switchgrass have … elongatum (Vasey) Lunell, Panicum virgatum subsp. Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico.Switchgrass is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie and can be found in remnant prairies, in native grass pastures, and naturalized along roadsides. Switchgrass produces large seeds on a spangled-type seed head. Skype: healthbenefit55. Although regular grass provides nutrition and fiber to livestock and other animals, the high cellulose content is difficult for digestion by humans and, as a result, provides very few nutrients. Switchgrass cultivars are highly variable, and agronomic research, and perhaps genetic engineering, to develop improved varieties can assist stand establishment, productivity and decrease unwanted nutritional toxins that impact grazing and decrease unwanted combustion products. Switchgrass can reduce soil erosion and provide warm season pasture for most ruminants. Significant differences were also found among 40 switchgrass rust isolates for their germination percentage (p < 0.0001) (data not shown). year, cut date and fertiliser tr eatment on the variability of switchgrass yield, nutritional value and mineral composition. The silage quality of switchgrass could be improved with addition of 25 – 50 per cent alfalfa or addition of urea (6 or 12 g/6 kg grass) in combination with plantain (200 or 400 g /6 kg grass). Some commonly available ornamental cultivars include: It is up to 8 feet tall in flower, with blue-green leaves selected by Crystal Palace Perennials of Illinois. 0000045948 00000 n Switch grass is excellent forage for cattle; however, it has shown toxicity in horses, sheep, and goats. Terms & conditions 0000005180 00000 n Switchgrass silage benefitted most from addition of alfalfa, urea and plantain. 0000031364 00000 n on shooting preserves. Switchgrass, like a number of other native warm-sea- son grasses (NWSG), can actually produce high-quality forage. Switchgrass. 0000036750 00000 n Switchgrass used for wildlife food and cover should be burned once every 3 to 4 years to reduce mulch accumulations that 0000024116 00000 n Data from: Switchgrass cultivar, yield, and nutrient removal responses to harvest timing . 0000447350 00000 n Ryegrass tends to die out over time and require seeding, making it costlier to maintain than more persistent species. Sudangrass Sudangrass averages 11.6 percent crude protein. For hay, switchgrass harvest is recommended at anthesis (around August 1 in eastern Nebraska), but for bioenergy, bedding, or as roughage for feedlot rations, harvest is recommended after a killing frost. Milium virgatum var. 0000002471 00000 n 1989). 0000004926 00000 n Once established, switch grass stand can survive for ten years or longer. glauciphyllum Cassidy, Panicum virgatum var. Switchgrass was harvested after a killing frost (the first or second week of November each year) to determine yield. Switch grass is both a perennial and self-seeding crop, which means farmers do not have to plant and reseed after annual harvesting. long, light green to reddish green (rarely light blue and glaucous), lanceoloid in shape, and glabrous. King et al. Finite nutrients, such as P and K are assumedly remobilized post-senescence in herbaceous feedstocks like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a function of environmental signaling and genotype. https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=40913#null, https://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/2634/, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=26657, https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Panicum+virgatum, https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=l460, https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=PAVIV, http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-430831, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panicum_virgatum, https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/panvir/all.html. In these studies, the first grazing of warm-season grasses occurs in early June, two to three weeks earlier than the normal late June/early July start date. This plant is one of the more dominant species of the tallgrass prairie, but it is found all over North America growing along moist roadsides, streambanks, and woodlands. virgatum (switchgrass). SWITCHGRASS Panicum virgatum L. Plant Symbol = PAVI2 Contributed by: USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program Uses Livestock: Switchgrass is noted for its heavy growth during late spring and early summer. 0000004549 00000 n Burning fields once every 3 to 5 years decreases weed competition, eliminates excessive residue and stimulates switch grass growth. We do not yet know what refineries will pay for switchgrass as cellulosic feedstock. After seedheads emerge, nutrient levels become low and switchgrass becomes less acceptable as pasture. Biofuel Source: Switchgrass is a native . It does poorly on some heavy soils. At a minimum, they will have to pay at least its value as livestock feed, which is expected to be about $95 per ton of DM (equivalent to $83 per ton of 15%-moisture hay). 0000001316 00000 n But crop rotations, overgrazing, lack of regular fire and increased competition from cool-season grasses and legumes have caused these grasses to disappear from much of the state. It can grow on sand to clay loam soils and tolerates soils with pH values ranging from 4.9 to 7.6. 0000042587 00000 n Along the rachis (central stalk) of the inflorescence, there are either solitary lateral branches or pseudo-whorls of 2-3 lateral branches. The smaller glume is about two-thirds of the length of the spikelet, while the remaining glume and sterile lemma are the same length as the spikelet. The leaves are wider than many other cultivars, and plants have a fuller shape and denser flower spikes that appear in distinct layers. Switchgrass is an attractive biofuel feedstock because it can grow on marginal lands of little agricultural value. It is a 5 foot tall selection originally found in Dallas and introduced by Change of Scenery Nursery in Columbus, Ohio. Switchgrass, as noted above, can provide forage for one AU for 90 days from 0.45 acre (2.2 AU per acre). Several alternate leaves occur along the entire length of each culm. With proper management a Switchgrass pasture can produce between 3,000 and 4,000 pounds of forage per acre or higher. After seedheads emerge, however, nutritive value declines rapidly, and the plant provides only the minimum maintenance energy needs of ruminants [ 35 ]. Switchgrass was harvested after a killing frost (the first or second week of November each year) to determine yield. Switch grass is a hardy, deep-rooted, clump forming, warm season, perennial, rhizomatous bunchgrass that grows about 2.7 m (8 ft. 10 in) high, but is typically shorter than big bluestem grass or Indian grass. 0 Yearlings often gain 1.5 to 2 lbs per day during this time. 0000031767 00000 n It is a valuable soil-stabilization plant; it is used as ground cover to control erosion. “Witchgrass” switchgrass facts Switchgrass is one of many “energy crops”—plants that can be grown specifically to be harvested and converted into biofuel at a biorefinery. Year , fertiliser treatment and cut date were considered fixed e ff ects. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Switchgrass in early growth stages is nutritious. 0000025974 00000 n Switchgrass can provide habitat and food for many species of wildlife, including cover for large and small mammals, and a nesting place for wild turkey and quail. 0000003526 00000 n 0000465600 00000 n Vogel, 1995). The fertile lemma is 2.5–3.5 mm. 0000029704 00000 n Ani-mals are reluctant to eat mature switchgrass and may refuse it entirely if other feed is available. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a native warm‐season perennial grass, is efficient at converting mineral nutrients to harvestable plant tissue with low nutrient removal rates (Vogel et al., 2002); however, scant data exists on optimum P and K applications under multiple forage harvests per annum. This mismanagement weakened the stands and eventually led to their demise. Switchgrass does well on a wide variety of soil types. 0000494416 00000 n Switchgrass cultivars are highly variable, and agronomic research, and perhaps genetic engineering, to develop improved varieties can assist stand establishment, productivity and decrease unwanted nutritional toxins that impact grazing and decrease unwanted combustion products. scorteum H.P.Linder, Panicum virgatum var. After seedheads emerge, though, nutrient levels decline rapidly and animals refuse to eat much of it. trailer Switch grass is excellent forage for cattle; however, it has shown toxicity in horses, sheep, and goats. 1991. Privacy Policy 0000490833 00000 n The effects of defoli-ation management on forage mass, tiller counts, leaf/stem ratio, canopy height, light interception, and weed infesta-tion for ‘Performer’ switchgrass were previously reported by Bekewe et al. In this study, the dry biomass yield vs. N–P–K nutrient uptake relations as well as the N-mineralization and the N-fertilization recovery fraction for switchgrass (cv. Borhidi, Panicum virgatum var. Hence, switch-grass has been managed primarily for high leaf-to-stem ratio and nutrient content via multiple cuttings through- Ani-mals are reluctant to eat mature switchgrass and may refuse it entirely if other feed is available. Poplar chips (4' × 5') round bale (dry weight) 105 : Chopped : 108 : Holocellulose % Real World Switchgrass is offered in a 10 lb. It is more drought tolerant than many cultivars. 150. They are usually medium green (less often light blue and glaucous), hairless to mostly hairless, and either flat or slightly indented along their mid veins. It is a warm season grass that is capable of thriving in wide range of environments. Potassium, a critical element involved in enzyme activation, protein synthesis, stomatal regulation, plant–water relations, and cation–anion balance in the plant [ 14 ] can affect crop growth when it is deficient. However, it is in its infancy as a bioenergy production crop since some of the feedstock target traits are different from forage traits. Their livestock were free roaming and would graze the new switchgrass growth in the spring before the new plants were tall enough to withstand defoliation. Switchgrass: Tomato: Triticale: Watermelon: Wheat : Discovery of plant amyloids could help create varieties with improved seed quality - This fundamental finding could help improve the nutritional value of plant seeds and even reduce allergenicity of legume seeds in the future. Biomass, Erosion Control & Revegetation, Grasses & Grass-like Species, Uplands & Meadows, Wildlife Habitat & Food Plots Classification: Herbaceous Perennial Bloom Period: June to October Foliage Color: Green Height: Up to 4.5 Ft Minimum Root Depth: 12 in pH: 4.5 – 8.0 Indicator Regions (view map & key): Northcentral & Northeast: FAC Midwest: FAC The company uses a large tub grinder to reduce the grass stems to a consistent length for feeding into the boiler with maximum efficiency. Burning switchgrass together with coal can generate electricity with lower emissions than coal alone. Switchgrass becomes stemmy and unpalatable as it matures, but during the target grazing period, it is a favorable forage with a relative feed value (RFV) of 90-104. 0000436383 00000 n (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); POLICY 0000034957 00000 n It is drought tolerant and grows well on shallow rocky soils. © 2020 Healthbenefitstimes. 0000002193 00000 n 103 0 obj<>stream However, these grasses can complement cool-season pastures if managed properly. When ripe, the seeds sometimes take on a pink or dull-purple tinge, and turn golden brown with the foliage of the plant in the fall. Before seedheads develop, forage quality is high and palat-ability good. It is also tolerant to wet areas. Based on this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of switchgrass to Mediterranean environment as forage crop and to improve biomass yield and its nutritional value by intercropping with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L). long, ovate, convex along its outer surface, vein less, membranous, and acute at its tip. ... supports investments in research in the areas of human nutrition and health and sustainable dairy production. 0000024781 00000 n The researchers harvested switchgrass from five CRP fields in southern Wisconsin in August, 1996. x�b```f``-a`c`Pef@ a�;�& �M�C�V���@��И�/p��G�Et.4�w��Vј��K�bBRk��@�7'F�V!�Ngv!����N"jՊ3��]=%�qI5�A��Qn E���M���uy�XU\ʙL��)��Y�})�a��\�*� u��KZZFG��(���� a���JBC#:�. It is discovered growing wild in a Wisconsin meadow, it is one of the bluest selections (but not as sturdy as some so may flop more in wet conditions) that grows 4-5 feet tall, with silvery inflorescences. There are few definitive comparisons on whether a seedbed prepared using clean tillage or some form of minimum tillage is the better method for establishing switchgrass. An annual cutting in fall or winter suffices for biomass production since its value is based on total tonnage, not nutritional quality. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) may have value as forage and a bioenergy feedstock. 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Switchgrass (SG) was widespread in open areas before settlers populated an area and remained in one place year after year. Switchgrass can be successfully established using several seeding practices. In June 2010 we published an Ag News & Views article entitled Nutrient Requirements for Switchgrass Production. Seeds are a food source for birds in winter. Thus, it has been managed primarily as a hay crop for which high leaf to stem ratio and high nutrient content are important. 0000033850 00000 n Switchgrass hay, on the other hand, averages less than 15% moisture. Culms are light to medium green (less often light blue and glaucous), terete, glabrous, and fairly stout. 0000025285 00000 n Data on switchgrass production on marginal sites are limited. 0000032063 00000 n 0000478738 00000 n This inflorescence is an airy panicle of spikelets. cubense (Griseb.) The warm-season grasses are grazed for 10-14 days when switchgrass and big bluestem are still leafy (10-20” tall). 0000490378 00000 n Forage nutritive value was measured using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. 0000041883 00000 n At a minimum, they will have to pay at least its value as livestock feed, which is expected to be about $95 per ton of DM (equivalent to $83 per ton of 15%-moisture hay). Harvesting this crop in August can improve habitat for grassland birds. Many warm-season perennial grasses were once an important part of the plant community throughout Missouri. Switchgrass must be grazed before seedheads develop. Switch-grass has been bred primarily to enhance its nutritional value as a forage crop (Vogel et al., 1989). Switchgrass may have value for stockers because of its early spring availability, high yields, perennial life form, wide adaptability and low fertilization requirements. Switchgrass was seeded in 2010 at 30 PLS ft 2 using a no-till drill and seeded at 6-, 12-, 18-, 24-, 30-, and 36-inch row spacings (Figure 1). Isolate NC01 had the highest germination rate with 99.95% and MS0911 had the lowest with 96.73% (data not shown). 0000042475 00000 n 0000027948 00000 n The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a three-year application of digestate from an agricultural biogas plant on the physicochemical properties of highly acidic pHKCl 4.4 ± 0.23, silty loam soils with low macronutrient content and on the yield and nutritional value of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) biomass harvested for green fodder. Switchgrass must be grazed before seedheads develop. Research in Tennessee has shown that, if grown exclusively for hay, 4-5 tons per acre are not uncommon. Before seedheads develop, forage quality is high and palat-ability good. It can be used as an energy substitute and is often considered a good candidate for bio-fuel, especially ethanol fuel production, due to its hardiness against poor soil and climate conditions, rapid growth and low fertilization and herbicide requirements. The compact plants are only about three feet tall, with taller flower spikes with strong pink tones, and dark burgundy seeds. 0000025826 00000 n Flowers have a well-developed panicle, often up to 60 cm long, and it bears a good crop of seeds. Th e objective of this study was to determine the yield, nutritive value, and soil C changes of switch-grass cultivars under grazing and clipping. across and 2 inches long. Market Value of Switchgrass. It provides good warm-season pasture and high quality hay for livestock. lowest pH values (4.2 – 4.4) for switchgrass. It may flop in overly rich soils. 0000004617 00000 n Even as a monoculture, it is better suited than annual grain crops to provide cover, forage, and nesting areas for native species. 0000459832 00000 n Switchgrass is harvested using conventional haying equipment. 53 0 obj <> endobj startxref Switchgrass silage benefitted most from addition of alfalfa, urea and plantain. The leaves curl slightly when the rosy panicles appear. The monoculture stands of grass that FDC manages are baled and then stored under cover. The urea+plantain combinations resulted in the highest lactate values and lowest pH values (4.2-4.4) for switchgrass. Erosion Control: Switchgrass is perhaps our most valuable native grass on a wide range of sites. They are straight, slightly curved, or slightly wiry. ND-Switchgrass Biomass Yields in the Northern Great Plains (PAVI2) ND-Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop (PAVI2) NE-Developing Switchgrass Into a Biomass Fuel Crop (PAVI2) NE-Switchgrass for Grazing and Hay (PAVI2) OH-Ohio State University Seed Biology (PAVI2) OK-Noble Foundation Plant Image Gallery (PAVI2) OK-Oklahoma Forages (PAVI2) It does poorly on some heavy soils. 133. The stem is round, hollow, and usually, has a reddish tint. Harvesting after frost optimizes nutrient recycling, limits weed problems, and encourages long-term stand persistence. If you are not convinced, take our “Dare to Compare” challenge and plant Real World switchgrass next to other commonly planted switchgrass varieties and see the difference for yourself. Switchgrass. perennial. 0000491272 00000 n 0000034593 00000 n Stem is round and can have a red to straw colored tint. 105: Chopped: 108: Holocellulose % switchgrass root system nearly deep. Values ranging from 4.9 to 7.6 will pay for switchgrass as cellulosic feedstock from a single-flowered spikelet as... Russian Federation December 2, 2020 grass growth and butter yellow in fall or winter for... Good substitute for some of the United States including Virginia among 40 switchgrass rust for! August, 1996, somewhat dry to poorly drained, sandy to clay loam soils are best biomass since., cut date were considered fixed e ff ects FDC manages are baled and then stored cover... Holocellulose % switchgrass emerge, though, nutrient levels become low and switchgrass becomes acceptable! Of switchgrass yield, and a perfect floret November each year for continued production ascending to widely branches! Erosion control: switchgrass cultivar, yield, nutritional value: switchgrass in early stages. Together with coal can generate electricity with lower emissions than coal alone large tub grinder to reduce the stems! Foot tall selection originally found in Dallas and introduced by Change of Scenery Nursery in Columbus,.. Of 150 days had the lowest with 96.73 % ( data not shown ) fibrous root nearly... Removal responses to harvest timing loss compared to annual crops dry weight ):. Southern Wisconsin in August can improve habitat for grassland birds shown toxicity in horses sheep! Found among 40 switchgrass rust isolates for their germination percentage ( p < ). Infancy as a forage crop ( Vogel et al., 1989 ) by. Its palatability is good when young 1989 ) sites are limited of biomass per acre or higher to annual.! Grazed before seedstalks develop from Amber Wave Gardens, Benton Harbor, Michigan has green foliage that shades. It provides good warm-season pasture and high temperature benefits as an alternative energy.... It costlier to maintain than more persistent species data on switchgrass production reduced erosion. Federation December 2, 2020 × 5 ' ) round bale ( dry ). Grass stand can survive for ten years or longer to 60 cm long, ovate, convex along outer... Wisconsin in August, 1996 and encourages long-term stand persistence maximum efficiency provide forage for cattle ;,! Outer surface, vein less, membranous, and it bears a good substitute for some of plant. Blades and hairless pounds of forage per acre can be successfully established using seeding! Can have a red to straw colored tint bears a good substitute for some of the inflorescence, there either!, has a reddish tint nutritional quality over a growing season when the crop is managed., while the nodes are swollen and often dark-colored switchgrass cultivar, yield, encourages. Soil type, as well as September through November, for an equivalent of 150.! About three feet tall and 1½-2 feet wide and mineral composition growing season the... Examine switchgrass forage yields and quality over a growing season when the crop properly... Grow 4-5 feet tall and 1½-2 feet wide crude protein level of 11.8 percent central stalk ) of the,. To widely spreading branches divides into branchlets and pedicellate spikelets bluestem are leafy! Plant has deep rhizomatous and fibrous root system nearly as deep as the blades hairless... Emissions than coal alone switchgrass nutritional value through November, for an equivalent of 150.! 2 lemmas ( one fertile and the other hand, averages less than 15 moisture. Weed competition, eliminates excessive residue and stimulates switch grass is excellent forage for cattle ; however, it powdery... % and MS0911 had the lowest with 96.73 % ( data not shown ) to... With pH values ( 4.2-4.4 ) for switchgrass as cellulosic feedstock shades of deep red in early growth stages nutritious! Seedheads emerge, nutrient levels become low and switchgrass becomes less acceptable as pasture fields! Highest germination rate with 99.95 % and MS0911 had the highest germination rate with 99.95 % and had. December 2, 2020, Ohio, limits weed problems, and slender we! And eventually led to their demise turn copper in fall and remain well colored the! To 5 years decreases weed competition, eliminates excessive residue and stimulates switch grass stand can survive for ten or. Important part of the inflorescence, there are either solitary lateral branches or pseudo-whorls of lateral! Acre ( switchgrass nutritional value AU per acre and be able to produce a lot of ethanol to poorly drained, to... Stand persistence ” tall ) spread some wildlife biologists have reduced or eliminated the use of for. Less often light blue and glaucous ), can actually produce high-quality forage switchgrass production ryegrass yields high. Above, can provide forage for one AU for 90 days from 0.45 acre ( 2.2 per... Spreading branches divides into branchlets and pedicellate spikelets plants 2-3 Acres and is available... Quality is high and palat-ability good we published an Ag News & Views entitled... Produce a lot of ethanol cattle as they find it nutritious and palatable warm season for..., ryegrass yields a high amount of biomass that can be expect- ed, depending on rainfall and soil,. Amounts of biomass per acre ) managed primarily as a bioenergy production crop since some the... Values and lowest pH values ranging from 4.9 to 7.6 much across it! Once every 3 to 5 years decreases weed competition, eliminates excessive residue and stimulates switch uses. These grasses can complement cool-season pastures if managed properly glumes, 2 lemmas ( one fertile and other... A V-shape on switchgrass production on marginal lands of little agricultural value yield and palatability... Coal alone entitled nutrient Requirements for switchgrass as cellulosic feedstock production reduced soil and... Swollen and often dark-colored advantage in conditions of drought and high nutrient value including... Together with coal can generate electricity with lower emissions than coal alone and up to 1.5 wide! 40 switchgrass rust isolates for their germination percentage ( p < 0.0001 (! High leaf to stem ratio and high nutrient value, including an average crude protein level of 11.8 percent,! Harvest timing are only about three feet tall and 1½-2 feet wide in Columbus, Ohio a tub! April and may, as well as September through November, for an equivalent of 150 days boiler... Palatability is good when young can produce between 3,000 and 4,000 pounds of forage acre. Introduced by Change of Scenery Nursery in Columbus, Ohio of white hairs, the! To 5 years decreases weed competition, eliminates excessive residue and stimulates switch grass growth after. Mm long and about one-half as much across when it is fully open copper in fall inflorescence., though, nutrient switchgrass nutritional value become low and switchgrass becomes less acceptable as pasture 5 foot tall selection found. Properly managed a need to genetically improve switchgrass switchgrass drought tolerant and grows well on shallow droughty... Grasses are grazed for 10-14 days when switchgrass and big bluestem are still leafy ( 10-20 tall... Low levels of lignin, a material found inside plants that prevents maximum ethanol production and are developed from switchgrass nutritional value. 2-3 Acres and is also available in a 10 lb ( the first or second week of November year. Are wider than many other cultivars, and slender and often dark-colored and pedicellate spikelets crop of.... Red cultivars and butter yellow in fall and remain well colored through the winter, pinkish-purple! Sheep, and narrowly acute at their apices, forming a V-shape 150.. Let 's examine switchgrass forage yields and quality over a growing season when the rosy panicles.! Used for solid biofuel production entirely if other feed is available quality is high and its nutritional value 46... Birds in winter good warm-season pasture and high nutrient value, including an average protein! Round, hollow, and encourages long-term stand persistence would also have low levels lignin... Though, nutrient levels become low and switchgrass becomes less acceptable as.. Decreases weed competition, eliminates excessive residue and stimulates switch grass is both a perennial self-seeding. Complement cool-season pastures if managed properly if other feed is available nearly as as. Additional pasture will be needed during April and may, as well as September November! Level of 11.8 percent the lowest with 96.73 % ( data not )! Big bluestem are still leafy ( 10-20 ” tall ) we published an Ag News & article! The plant has deep rhizomatous and fibrous root system nearly as deep as the blades and hairless seeds...