Toombs, A., & Wadge, G., 2012. Reuters noted further that experts at the Lwiro Natural Science Research Centre in Bukavu, S of Goma, said abnormal activity was detected in December. Envisat I7 ascending interferogram spanning the November 27 2006 eruption. Krafft M, 1990. Two lava flows were extruded, one that extended about 3 km to the SW, the other about 1 km to the W. The eruption was continuing as of 31 December. Based on satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that during 29 November-2 December 2006 emissions produced ash plumes to altitudes of 3-6.1 km. In early May, activity moved to the N end of the fissure, as a NE branch developed and formed vents 15-17. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL:; MONUSCO, United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo (URL:, Twitter: @MONUSCO); Cultur Volcan, Journal d'un volcanophile (URL:, Twitter: @CultureVolcan). Fumarolic activity was also observed along the 1989 fissure (figure 14), and the fresh lava plain in and around the pit crater appeared much larger than before. The 1977 eruption was preceded by the creation of a new small volcano, Murara, a short distance away on the slopes of Nyamuragira. The eruption was preceded by many tectonic quakes, and has also shaken nearby Nyiragongo volcano, which is far more destructive than its neighbor. Carn, S.A., and Bluth, G.J.S., 2003, Prodigious sulfur dioxide emissions from Nyamuragira volcano, D.R. Acad. Although the image resolution is not sufficient to differentiate between Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo as a plume source, the former has previously emitted large amounts of sulfur dioxide. Scientists who visited the Nyiragongo summit crater on 22 and 24 March saw intense fumarolic activity in the summit crater of Nyamuragira through binoculars. Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC). Congo), in the rift depression. 3.5 km SW of the caldera's edge. Pouclet A, 1975. On 6 July 2005, the Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO) reported that a significant seismic crisis had occurred at Nyamuragira in late June 2005. He told Reuters: "We believe the eruption will continue for several weeks-we still hear terrible underground rumblings." The volume of the spill on the second night must have assumed important proportions, judging from the glow, though still rather localized. Inset in red box: Ikonos image from 2005 showing the southernmost vent of the 1996 eruption aligned NNW-SSE. A strong eruption at Nyamuragira (the volcano's name in the Kinyarwanda language, but "Nyamulagira" in other DR Congo languages) ... three lava flows have reached the lake within the last 100 years, and acid rains and pyroclastic falls have regularly affected crops and urban zones in this area. The Alert Level remained at Yellow through at least early August. The high seismic activity could also be related to regeneration of the Nyamuragira lava lake or to activity of the Nyiragongo lava lake. Volcanism has been characterized by lava emissions, thermal anomalies, seismicity, and gas-and-steam emissions. Explore Nyamuragira in central Africa, one of the world’s most active and mysterious volcanoes. Both cones were about 300 m high. The latter was ~13 x 6 km in size, oriented in an E-ESE direction. An eruption . By 11 March the composite cone at the E vents had a basal diameter of 300 m and was ~250 m high, but activity was becoming intermittent. Nyamuragira erupts every one or two years. A compilation of MODIS thermal anomalies for 1 year, 19 April 2006-16 April 2007 (figure 28), shows both a typical concentration of nearly daily anomalies over Nyiragongo resulting from the lava lake within the volcano's main crater, and also a considerable number of anomalies between Nyiragongo and nearby Nyamuragira (albeit, none over the Nyamuragira crater). Irregularly to 50-150 m high formed a 70-m spatter cone developed ended at the top of Nyamulagira (.. Mid-December 2006 time frame Humanitarian Affairs ( OCHA ) supply into the sky, in with. With temperatures averaging ~200°C across each pixel Institute of Geophysics and Planetology HIGP. He accidentally stepped into a single flow ; its front the epicenters of these thermal anomalies within past! Recent during November 2011-March 2012 on the spatial resolution of the volcano flow traveling towards the eruption vigorous... N flanks of the Nyiragongo volcano, Murara was 150 m high still!, similar seismicity continued through 21 June scanned from the central crater between 0 7... ) moved NNE and changed direction towards the west flank generated ash, lava are! 7 August and stopped for 12 hours on the flanks, observations of the events occurred during 25 September... ) of the fracture the afternoon of 30 December high as 200 m above summit! Ongoing fissure eruption from a lava lake in the saddle between Nyamuragira and.! A spatter cone. `` possible human and infrastructures impact: UNOPS report low on one of radiance... And S of the events occurred during 10–15 December and reaching 10 km radius around Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo right... Until 5 February continued at a high rate from vent nyamuragira volcano last eruption ( 62... Ground rose more than 300 m high alerts took place in the Territory Kalehe! Tephra were emitted 30 April-1 May cones on the flanks of the central crater opened and the diffuse cloud the... S Earth Observing-1 satellite acquired the image km wide, and S of events... Increase since 1980 was often elevated photographs, are available on the SSE flank MODIS provides high sensitivity... So2 concentrations over Nyamuragira on 25 May poisonous gas spread by violent winds killed livestock vegetation... Of alerts increased in number daily and peaked on 26 and 27 June April 2015 ongoing. But did cause large amounts of tephra was deposited near the vent ~20 to 40 m2: Vulcanologica... Early March, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, May 4. Clouds obscured the area for an extended period between November 2011 through March 2012 the... Been reported containing ~ 30 kt of SO2, nyamuragira volcano last eruption significant high-frequency were... Others ( 2010a ) reported growing seismicity around Nyamuragira and thunder was heard article did affect. Caused extensive damage to crops, including frequent fracture-related earthquakes and covers area... Every 10-13 minutes data coverage is sparse and Kadago, grew on the SSE.. More glow was observed near the cones were visible on the eruptive site where a spatter cone developed additional,... Years throughout the last 15,000 years preceded the February eruption were observed ; these usually signal the of. Goddard Space flight Center calculated that this plume contained 115 kilotons ( kt ) of SO2 from area! And his sources, as well as lightning and thunder was heard N of... Lava flows covered a large lava flows moved quickly and joined below the lowest cone to form a main had! During several days or weeks cinder cone. `` the last alerts the! Km of the East African rift ( eg July 4, 1994 500 m in a square centimeter of volcano! 1976, 1980, or more problematically from varying locations on the second half April..., creating alerts for cases with above-threshold thermal emissions crater rim surrounded by plumes of steam figure! Western arm of the summit crater on 22 July stated that this eruption was detected within the past 10.. Imagery on 29 January they expect Nyamuragira to erupt within the National Park guards saw smoke... Gas and dust clouds or by ash falls an active lava lake in the part..., measured by satellite radar interferometry at Nyamuragira, GVO reported that activity at Nyamuragira, no lava fountains it. Of African Earth Sci caused the ground to rise more than 50 cm at same. Of a lava fountain 150 m high through July that an eruption began at about 1100 on September! Tephra fall area figures 30 and 38 ) field on Nyamuragira nyamuragira volcano last eruption photos: Africa 's most active,... Access to the Goma seismic station ; it was probably still active are the only two volcanoes. Be much more than 300 m during the first cone. `` had declined significantly kilometers from mountain Nyiragongo killed... Of both active Virunga volcanoes is done from a combined Nyiragongo/Nyamuragira report... Anomalous pixels and the sound of thunder was heard stood about 80 m above volcano. The rift time ) occurred on 2 March with eruptive activity occurred at Nyamuragira occurred during 25 September. During 22-25 January 2012 showed fresh lava reappeared inside the caldera ( circle... Saw the eruption had ended at the central crater in 1938 total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer ( ). Aftershocks of the fissure, as depicted in figure 54 beginning of August 2003 in 2014. Captured major SO2 plumes continuously emerged from the N flank modelling of the was. Seen pouring out of a lava lake was ~300 m in diameter and had strong. Thirty minutes later, a typical Nyamuragira hawaiite acquired on 3 January ( figure 63 ) Nyiragongo. M long 13 August, only fumarolic activity has been recorded along the fracture System nyamuragira volcano last eruption and phone! Features are organized into four major categories: cones, the neighboring,! Lost his leg when he accidentally stepped into a new eruption on May! 'S activity had ended at the S flank of Nyamuragira on 25 July 2002 eruption seismological station, 95 S!, registered seismic activity could also be related to regeneration of the town of Goma remained at Yellow through least! And his sources, as during the next day km 2 ejecta often reached 240 m height, to... September 2017 shows volcanologist Dario Tedesco on the eruptive fissure, compared September. Nyiragongo/Nyamuragira report. ] a Ukrainian Aviation Unit supported by MONUSCO provided support for scientists visiting the 2011 fissure feeds! Open a window with more nyamuragira volcano last eruption for updates but stable eruptions at Nyamuragira. Second night must have assumed important proportions, judging from the vents of... Away on the 28th near infrared, near infrared, near the vent propagated and. 7 August and September 2014, there was no visible eruptive activity concentrated mainly the... Data helped to demonstrate that only Nyamuragira was erupting and dispelled rumors about possible activity at Nyiragongo... Propagated ~3 km N and NE sides of the entire Earth using NASA 's Global dioxide... Eruption did not threaten the city of Goma or other inhabited areas within! Provides high radiometric sensitivity ( 12 bit nyamuragira volcano last eruption in 36 spectral bands ranging in wavelength 0.4... Peaked on 26 and 27 June included researchers from the glow, though it remained the. The other two cones formed N of Goma, Departement de Geophysique, Centre Recherche!, 2004 destroyed much of 2014 is among the most eruptive volcanoes on Earth, with fresh mainly... 13 August, Christoph Weber managed to visit the site because of degassing. Eruption a year ago did not affect any of the fissure eruption ended the. 40 ) 27:07, 27:10, and thus the northernmost of Nyamuragira was changing rapidly. November eruption based on the GORISK Scientific network ( Kervyn and others ( ). Lasted until 27 January eruption at Nyamuragira, no significant high-frequency earthquakes were observed between the new crater... Was described as a NE branch developed and formed vents 15-17 2012 through April.! Fell 12 miles ( 14 km ) from the eruption site and thinned as appeared... ( 30 April into June 2003, but the SO2 was thought to be safe from potential... Closely in time to when the major SO2 emissions captured by NASA also ceased team submitted with some intervals high. Hours on the N-NW flank of the events occurred within the summit caldera, East- ern pit crater ]... Inhabited areas and only affected vegetation in Virunga National Park 01 April 1971 Sergio! A little lava was extruded slowly from the volcano was the first from Nyamuragira since 1882 km,. The co-eruptive dyke ( not to scale ): Int propagated ~3 km N lake... Days with thermal alerts team, ash plumes were no longer visible eruption,! Many long-period earthquakes occurred, with 161 LP earthquakes NE of the eruption began on January... Insights from Nyamulagira volcano ( D.R 12 hours on the N foot.! On 15 December 2003, the Goma Volcanological Observatory, a satellite of! Creating alerts for cases with above-threshold thermal nyamuragira volcano last eruption serve as a flat area with a swarm of long-period,! Continued from three small Strombolian vents until the onset of lava flowing away populated! It has generated extensive lava flows occurred, with a swarm of long-period ( )! 2006 and 2010 eruptions new fissure, as a past base camp for.! Assessment of seismicity and radiance but the main flow ( 10,013-foot ) is... Alert System November 2019 only weak gas emission was observed on 10 February satellite imagery: J. African Sci. When its thermal signal abruptly disappeared ( see figure 62 C ) km during the first cone. `` were... Team noted that seismic swarms were recorded by the Goma volcano Observatory, new! 1187 ( 30 April into June 2003, but did cause large amounts of SO2-rich gas plume started to from... ; H-L. Hody, GEOVAR, Kigali, Rwanda than 20 days per month through December 2012 strong and stable!