A growing fleet of recreational vessels increases physical impacts on seagrass beds and seagrass scars caused by groundings, anchors, and propellers are commonly found on shallow beds (Sargent et al., 1995). 11. Equipment and training were provided under the project to strengthen the analytical capabilities of participating countries' scientific institutions. Dating tests indicate an increase in the sedimentation rate in recent years, due most likely to changing land use and climatic events affecting the canal watershed. Sedimentation rates show an increase from 1890 to 1980 with peaks attributed to severe weather events that have hit the area. Sustainable Development (SD) has become a ubiquitous development paradigm—the catchphrase for international aid agencies, the jargon of development planners, the theme of conferences and academic papers, as well as the slogan of development and environmental activists (Ukaga, Maser, & Reichenbach, 2011). One of the nine priorities is to use of coastal land optimally, recognizing that land use in the coastal areas is diverse, competitive, and often conflicting. Sustainable Development Goal 14 (Goal 14 or SDG 14) is about "Life below water" and is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations in 2015. Rajarshi DasGupta, ... Mrittika Basu, in Coastal Management, 2019. It feels like no map, table, or narrative I could ever create would adequately represent the hopes and dreams of these Huxham et al. Higher levels of poly nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons have also been detected since the 1980s. Analysis of lead-210 dating and other environmental indicators have helped Nicaragua evaluate changes in the sedimentary process and identify possible causes. It is the site for thousands of industrial and commercial enterprises, as well as home for nearly one million people. Fishing practices such as shrimp trawling taking place in the Dry Tortugas and Biscayne Bay disturb the bottom and have a direct impact on seagrass meadows (Kaiser, Collie, Hall, Jennings, & Poiner, 2002). Coastal development linked to human settlements, industry, aquaculture, and infrastructure can cause severe impacts on near shore ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. The environmental impacts of development impacts directly affect communities' ability to balance natural resource protection with sustainable community growth. Dredging can further mobilize mercury present in sediments, thus emphasizing the need and importance of heavy metal pollution control in Cartagena Bay. Over the past several decades, agriculture, especially rice cultivation, has played a dominant role in these megadeltas by shaping the local economy, catering to regional food demands, and providing income opportunities to isolated rural communities. Bananas have been grown in the area for over 100 years; it is an agricultural activity noted for its high dependence on agricultural chemicals and fertilizers and for increased cargo ship traffic to the local seaports. Urbanization and the development of tourism explain the importance of coastal development in the coastline of Greece, while at the same time the coasts have increased cultural and financial value. Amatique Bay is a semi-enclosed body of water along the eastern coast of Guatemala hosting a complex ecosystem of coastal lagoons, swamps, marshes, river systems and channels that connect protected waters and the adjacent continental shelf. In fact, decreases in freshwater flow into Florida Bay caused by the South Florida water management system played a major role in a shift from a H. wrightii-dominated state in the 1970s to a T. testudinum-dominated state in the 1980s (Zieman, 1982). This information, including the trend of mercury pollution analyzed in the sediments, is the first-ever comprehensive results reported in the area. As for example, Abedin et al. Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (INVEMAR), Colombia (Institute of Marine and Coastal Research), Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Costa Rica (University of Costa Rica), Instituto Costarricense de Acueductos y Alcantarillados, Costa Rica (Costa Rica Institute of Aqueducts and Sewage Systems), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Cuba (Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment)/li>, Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana (Autonomous University of Santo Domingo), Ministerio de Energia y Minas (MEM), Guatemala (Ministry of Energy and Mines), Empresa Portuaria Quetzal, Guatemala Quetzal Port Enterprise), Ministere de l'environnement, Haiti Ministry of the environment), Secretaria de Recursos Naturales y Ambiente (SERNA), Honduras (Secretary of Natural Resources and Environment), National Environment and Planning Agency, Jamaica, niversidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (National Autonomous University of Mexico), niversidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua, Nicaragua (National Autonomous University of Nicaragua), Autoridad de Recursos Acuáticos de Panamá, Panamá (Authority for Aquatic Resources of Panama), Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Spain (Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology Research), Universidad del Oriente, Venezuela (University of the Orient). Furthermore, it is important to understand how habitat fragments can best be incorporated into broader land use planning and coastal management, in order to maximize the environmental benefits they … Nicaragua will be using knowledge gained from these analyses to replicate the study in othe rcoastal ecosystems in Nicaragua with similar conditions, and even extend the study to inland water bodies. Pollution in the Bay of Cartagena can be attributed to domestic sewage discharges; industrial dumping; leachate landfills; and sediments from the Canal del Dique. The Bay of Havana is Cuba's major waterway and gateway to its capital city. Telephone: +43 (1) 2600-0, Facsimile +43 (1) 2600-7, © 1998–2020 IAEA, All rights reserved. Most of the Hellenic urban centers such as Athens, Piraeus, Thessaloniki, Heraklion, Patras, Volos, Kavala, etc. The number of visitors to Cahuita National Park increased dramatically between 1982 and 1991 (latest data available) (Bermúdez 1992). The only coasts that show sand accumulation are those in which there are large rivers with an abundant sediment load. data). Sustainable development definition: economic development that is capable of being maintained at a steady level without... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples It builds on existing national sectoral strategies and plans and on the document on National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction. Considering the above, this chapter presents the results of an empirical study conducted over the salinity-impacted coastal plains of the lower Gangetic delta in India (aka Indian Sundarban delta) involving local farmers who suffered severe livelihood discontinuation from Cyclone Aila in 2009. Each of these country reports stress that data on the trends in heavy metal and organic pollution gathered for the last 100 years will be a useful tool for decision makers in crafting strategies for sustainable coastal management. This is a premise of the sustainable development ideal. Implementing of both CZPo and CDS was slow because of lack of funds, political instability, and major natural calamities. If you would like to learn more about the IAEA’s work, sign up for our weekly updates containing our most important news, multimedia and more. Analysis of the sedimentation at Rio Haina indicate peaks during periods of extreme weather events, for example, strong hurricanes that struck the area in 1940, 1945, 1979 and again in 1998. It also has one of the largest ports in the Caribbean and a manufacturing base for hundreds of small and medium factories. data). The factors that influence development along the Mexican coast need to be better understood to ensure minimal harm to the environment (State of Nova Scotia, 2016). Urgent measures may also have to be taken along the upper basins of the rivers Ulua and Chameleon to control soil erosion. Port-au-Prince Bay acts as a natural harbour for Haiti's like-named capital city. Leticia , in Coastal Management, 2019. There are similarities across the region and common pollution trends. No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Jorge Cortés, Carlos Jiménez, in Latin American Coral Reefs, 2003. Coastal development linked to human settlements, industry, aquaculture, or infrastructure can cause severe impacts on near-shore ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. This increased visitation has had an impact on the coral reefs of the region (Cortés 1994). The rate of sedimentation has tripled in Puerto Cortes in the last 50 years, and is expected to double its current rate in the next 20 years if left unchecked. From 1980 onwards, heavy metal concentrations in the area have reached levels that could pose a risk to marine biota. … The impact of reef walkers and snorklers was measured recently in the lagoon at Punta Cahuita. (32.6%), Porites spp. com. Coastal development impacts may be direct such as land filling, dredging, and coral and sand mining for construction, or indirect, such as increased runoff of sediment and pollutants (Reefresilience, 2016). The absence of adequate treatment plants means waste-water, solid waste and sewage are deposited untreated directly into the bay or nearby rivers. Guidance Manual for Smart, Safe Growth in the CNMI – 2018 View this publication. Increased traces of heavy metal pollution have also been detected, but this has been attributed more to increased sedimentation rather than the level of industrial activity. Nutrient loading from both wastewater and stormwater in the Florida Keys can negatively affect seagrass beds by limiting light availability and fueling the growth of micro- and macroalgae that compete with seagrasses. From: World Seas: an Environmental Evaluation (Second Edition), 2019, Norma Patricia Muñoz Sevilla, ... Alejandra Cortés Ruiz, in Coastal Management, 2019. Nomiki Simboura, ... Panayotis Panayotidis, in World Seas: an Environmental Evaluation (Second Edition), 2019. Armoring of the shoreline with seawalls and docks increases the reflection of wave energy and increases erosion rates. Apart from the impact of elevated sea surface temperature, another emerging threat includes the increasing frequency of harmful algal blooms. Growing human population and coastal development are threatening seagrass beds. Additionally, anchors were dragged along the bottom, uprooting octocorals and overturning small massive corals. Sustainable Development. The projection of recent mangrove loss trends over the next 20 years suggests a 43% loss of total forest extent over that time, whereas the restoration of the mangrove extent loss between 1992 and 2012 is still plausible. CNMI Low-Impact Development Best Management Practices Report-2018 View this publication Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Artificial land uses like urban constructions, roads, airports, ports, and railways represent a significant percentage (1.95%) of the total land cover (Corine Land Cover, 2000). The following national institutes participated in theregional project for sustainable coastal management ofthe Caribbean: Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100 It can also negatively affect other marine sectors such as fisheries and marine aquaculture due to structural changes in the local economy and activities. Five years is but an instant in the course of centuries recorded by the science of ocean sediment core sampling. Although industrial activity in Port-au-Prince Bay is limited, the generation of solid and liquid waste dumped into the bay - estimated at 1 500 tonnes per day - resulted in a steady increase of heavy metals in the water, particularly lead and mercury. Enhancing conservation and the sustainable use of ocean-based resources through international law will also help mitigate some of … Coastal areas face increasing pressures from land use change, developmental activities, shoreline erosion, biodiversity losses and natural calamities. It is a hub for tourism, for fishing and for industry. Finally, there is one report of black coral extraction at Punta Uva by recreational divers (S. Larkimstrunz, per. However, certain factors discourage public officials and private investors from investing in sustainable development strategies. Its impact has been catastrophic for the bay's ecosystems, leading to the existing coral reefs' destruction, as well as of all sea grass. The adverse impact of salinity is further hypothesized by a number of researchers as a determining factor behind the remarkable outward migration of agricultural workers from the Asian megadeltas (Basu and Shaw, 2013; Dasgupta et al., 2014; Basu et al., 2015). The country conducted its first studies to assess the extent of the contamination in the mid-90's. The TD Campus and Community Sustainability Initiative, also known as Sustain Coastal, is committed to transform Coastal Carolina University into an environmentally sustainable university through campus operations, student curriculum, engaging students through learning and outreach, and collaboration in the community through sustainable stewardship of resources. Coastal development causes loss of semi-natural and natural land, destruction and fragmentation of coastal habitats, and is also related to increased erosion levels and increased discharge of diffuse pollution and marine litter to the marine environment. The combination of project redesign in response to EIS information and reactive environment management systems can provide enormous improvements to coastal seagrass protection. (2015) provides economic evidence for mangrove conservation and demonstrates a policy tool (CCD) that can be used to convince stakeholders and policy-makers to implement actions for mangrove conservation and restoration (Fig. 28.11). The Blue Economy is sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods and jobs, while preserving the health of marine and coastal ecosystem. Reactive processes can include port contingency planning, dredge material management plans, and risk management plans that identify areas of seagrass to be protected in the event of a cargo spill or ship grounding. Mercury pollution is also evident in Cartagena Bay, according to the analysis presented, with high concentrations detected in the deeper sediment layers. Coastal development is defined as the human-induced change of the landscape within sight of the coastline. The coastline is densely populated and includes a large number of industries that dump their sewage into the water. Only one of the identified ICZM investment programs has entered the Government's Annual Development Programs; the Ministry of Land (MoL) began implementing coastal land zoning, an important element of the program. Pesticide pollution - from DDTs - fluctuated in correlation with their use in farming activities, decreasing from the 1980s onwards as use of these pesticides were gradually discouraged. The industrial corridor built along its banks is home to about 65 petrochemical plants including the Lazaro Cardenas refinery, the oldest in the country. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. They provide a majority of global ecosystem goods and services and are central to socio-cultural and economic development. With rapid urbanization in the coastal zone and increasing habitat losses, it is imperative to understand how urban development affects coastal biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. One of the colonies was approximately 2 m high by 2.3 m wide, and was considered the attraction of the deep dives there. In a small cove at the lee side of Isla Mona, large stands of L. cucullata and Agaricia spp. These activities, coupled with rapid population growth, constitute the main sources of pollution in the bay area. The Bluefield Lagoon in the south Atlantic autonomous region of Nicaragua is an ecological haven for a variety of marine life and eco systems. upland and wetland habitats, development in coastal areas further degrades the ... definition of coast is “the space in which terrestrial environs interact ... to bring about safe and sustainable coastal communities. Sustainable Development of Coastal Waters ... organic pollution gathered for the last 100 years will be a useful tool for decision makers in crafting strategies for sustainable coastal management. CNMI Sustainability Guide for Hospitality Industry – 2018 View this publication. A major economic activity in Almirante Bay in the province of Bocas del Toro, Panama, is the processing of bananas for export. The official wording is to "Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development". Another source of contamination emanates from the settlements along the Bay of Almirante. The combination of these scenarios allowed modeling economic outcomes, suggesting that the conservation of Kenya's mangroves entails a net present value of US$20 million. At the current rate of sedimentation, Honduras expects that the frequency and cost of dredging the harbour area may increase in the near future. The project on the sustainable management of the Caribbean Sea is scheduled for full completion in 2012. The experts recommend a program of periodic checks, including measures to control the amount of urban and industrial going into Coatzacoalcos river and its tributaries. (2012) mentioned that, on average, Bangladesh losses 0.2 Mmt of rice every year due to salinity intrusion in coastal areas. 10. For example: The Bay of Cartagena is one of Colombia's major waterways. Oceans, along with coastal and marine resources, play an essential role in human well-being and social and economic development worldwide. Dictionary ! The SDGs aim to sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems from pollution, as well as address the impacts of ocean acidification. Source: Report of the Secretary-General, "Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals", E/2017/66. Information and data gathered so far on the evolution and state of pollution in the bay is expected to serve as baseline for evaluating policies and coastal management programmes to be established. Hurricanes' seasonal passage aggravates the situation, resulting in increased pollution load and heavy metals discharge into the marine environment. In particular, prolonged surge water flooding over the low alluvial plains and the consequent salinization of coastal agricultural lands have led to a massive discontinuation of community livelihood in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta in India and Bangladesh, the Ayeyarwady Delta in Myanmar, and the Mekong Delta in Vietnam (Nhan et al., 2012; DasGupta and Shaw, 2015; SeinnSeinn et al., 2015). The recovery of resilience of seagrass beds and associated fauna in the coastal bays of South Florida is an explicit goal of the Everglades restoration program that is supposed to increase the amount of freshwater delivered into both Florida Bay and Biscayne Bay. 11 A sustainable development strategy is in place which includes the precautionary principle and an ecosystems approach, and which treats coastal areas as distinct and separate entities. While recorded levels of organic and inorganic pollutants are low, there is an increased trend inthe presence of lead, arsenic and other organic pollutants in the area. 4.1 Sustainable development in the context of flood and coastal erosion risk management requires an approach which delivers four outcomes: i) Maximises the … ), sustainability of coastal agriculture remains at a stake. (Photo: D. Sacchetti/IAEA). At the same time, the high rates of erosion in the region, prolonged flooding of the coasta lzone and uncontrolled disposal of urban waste have contributed to increased sedimentation in the coastal areas. They have lost up to 300 m perpendicular to the coast along 4.5 km, disappearing almost half the town. Also, dozens of beverage cans were found in the bottom. The Blue Economy encompasses many activities that impact all of us. To recovered the lost terrain we proposed the use of geotubes, constructing a barrier parallel to the beach and filling with dredging and reinforcing these structures with submerged breakwaters of geotubes. This behavior was at times encouraged by the boater who brought them to the reef. Thus, as water clarity decreases, seagrass mortality can take place and depth distributions can decline. Beyond its intrinsic ecological value, it also provides the country with tourism, recreation, sport, communications, real estate, transport, renewable energy, oil and gas, fisheries and aquaculture, and ports and harbors. Land is also degrading because of increased salinity and water logging. As nutrient availability increases further, planktonic microalgae bloom and can deprive benthic plants of light. Species composition of seagrass beds in Florida is highly influenced by salinity, with increases in the amount and variability in runoff leading to a change from T. testudinum-dominated seagrass beds to ones dominated by H. wrightii (Fourqurean, Boyer, Durako, Hefty, & Peterson, 2003; Lirman et al., 2014). more >> ISO 9001 Certification ISO 45001 Certification Huxham et al. On average a person breaks 3.18 colonies of Porites porites and overturns 0.26 masses of the coralline algae Amphiroa fragilissima per day (Gove and Cortés unpubl. This book examines some key questions for tourism development in these areas, with implications for similar regions across the world. The increase in average sediment accumulation rates is most likely a result of soil erosion caused by changes in land use to support industrial and urban development in this area. However, two cyclones, Sidr in 2007 and Aila in 2009, have again brought the coastal zone to national attention. The objectives of this chapter are threefold. Plans to reclaim more coastal shorelines and the merging of adjacent islands in the next decade have raised concerns that the coral reef would be at risk of further habitat destruction. Coastal Development & Sea Turtles. Tourist visitation to the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, as well as coastal development has increased enormously in the last two decades. At Punta Mona, we have recorded coral damage due to anchoring by tourism related boats. However, the benefits associated with mangrove conservation and restoration (e.g., fisheries, tourism, C sequestration, and protection against coastal erosion and extreme weather events) remain undervalued and are being dismissed (Tamooh et al., 2008). Nearly all colonies in the path through the lagoon that the walkers used to reach the reef crest were damaged or overturned. A consequence of this event was the replacement of dense Thalassia beds by thick mats of the green alga. However, with recent cyclonic storms over the north Indian Ocean and intensified surges (e.g., Cyclone Sidr in 2007; Cyclone Nargis in 2008; Cyclone Aila in 2009; Cyclone Phailin in 2013, etc. Until then, follow-up training on the use of lead-210 for dating sediments and a review meeting for all counterparts are still foreseen. Jiménez-IllescasÁngel R. Zayas-EsquerMa Magdalena Espinosa-CarreónT. Sustainable development calls for concerted efforts towards building an inclusive, sustainable and resilient future for people and planet. Land in the coastal region has also been accreting and is being gradually developed. IDS 6240 - Sustainable Coastal Planning: Concepts and Principles (3) The course provides an overview of land use planning, introduces sustainable/smart growth principles and provide specific development concepts for coastal and waterfront communities. The bay in the coastal city of Puerto Cortes in Honduras is the site for its fuel and mineral storage industries, fertilizer plants and textile manufacturing. The history of coastal development in the Asian megadeltas predominantly narrates the reclamation of marshy swamps into agricultural establishments, thereby expanding human settlements toward the coast. The FAO definition of sustainable agricultural development is "the management and conservation of the natural resource base, and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction … There is a need for development alternatives that reduce ecosystem degradation. The sustainability of coastal areas largely depends on effective and timely planning at the local level. Legal Framework for Managing Coastal Tourism Development 29 Summary 32 CHAPTER 4. It provides a natural habitat for fish, crustaceans and marine species of great commercial interest. Similarly environmental impact statements (EIS), environmental impact assessments, reviews of environmental factors, initial advice statements, and a variety of other report formats are designed to identify and to possibly minimise (by redesign, response, or by reducing future risk) the effect of a development or structure on the coastal environment including seagrasses. (2015) developed a new policy concept of Climate Compatible Development (CCD) to predict the economic consequences of plausible alternative future scenarios for Kenya's mangrove forests. , heavy metal concentrations in the course of centuries recorded by the who... And is being gradually developed at a stake the trend of mercury pollution analyzed in the coastal zone to attention. Mercury pollution analyzed in the cnmi – 2018 View this publication or its licensors or contributors well. Structure ( Ng et al., 2017 indicators have helped Nicaragua evaluate changes in the sedimentary process identify. 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