The five communication effects may appear to resemble and perhaps to extend the notion of a hierarchy-of-effects, and it would be surprising if they didn't, given the widely acclaimed face validity of the hierarchy notion. [Preston (1982) has made a heroic effort in proposing an advertising communication model that attempts to integrate most of the major syndicated measures. However, it is not yet reasonable to refer to these as alternative advertising communication models, since these decisions mainly refer to alternative targets of the communication rather than to alternative communication processes. A further note about the checklist is that the manager is asked to indicate whether the input for each component of the model stems from research or from judgment. Fennell, G. (1975), "Motivation Research Revisited," Journal of Advertising Research, 15 (June), 23-27. Firstly, a general structure of the necessary components of an advertising communication model is provided. Ashok K Lalwani, Indiana University, USA
Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Particular models eliminate or severely limit the use of certain models. Media exposure schedule. From the manager's "top down" planning perspective, an advertising communication model therefore consists of decisions at four levels: A. (1976), "Some Internal Factors Influencing Consumer Choice," Journal of Consumer Research, 2 (March). Accordingly, the cognitive tactics for the high involvement models (especially the high involvement/informational model) are much more detailed than for the low involvement models. These theories or models attempt to explain and describe, at the individual buyer or consumer level, the process by which advertising communicates with and effectively persuades individuals to take action. Discontinuous innovations (Robertson 1971) invariably have to "sell" the category need in their advertising; new brand entries in a well known category may have to remind the target audience of the category to which the brand is aspiring; but established brands rarely have to address category need unless, as Campbell's Soup did recently, they are trying to stimulate category sales of which they reap a large share. Brand awareness is poorly conceptualized in most advertising plans. 6. To do so would be requiring too much of what should be a tailored communication effort. Rather, our approach postulates a "heterarchy" of effects, at both the processing step and the communication effects step, as will be explained later. It is noteworthy that all published studies in which attitude toward the ad has been shown to contribute significantly to attitude toward the brand have employed what appear to be low involvement/transformational products: beer (Rossiter and Percy 1980); facial tissues (Mitchell and Olsen 1981); and soda (Shimp and Yokum 1982). Advertising is an audio-visual form of marketing that engages an open, non-personal message to promote a product or a service. The receiver then becomes a temporary source and the destination becomes the receiver again. Step C-4: Use of a Presenter The use of a presenter (or endorser) in ads is another decision that often confronts managers. Advertising communication models have inherent implications for media selection and media scheduling. In soft-sell advertising, the target audience does not form an immediate conscious intention to purchase or take action with regard to the brand. If these a priori tactical recommendations stimulate research to test or challenge them, they will have served their present purpose.] Brand awareness is poorly conceptualized in most advertising plans. It can be seen (Note that in brand recognition, the process is reversed: brand recognition is the cue and category need is the response. The sender has some kind of information — a command, request, question, or idea — that he or she wants to present to others. and P.R. 80-2. The basic AIDA model is one of the longest serving hierarchical models, having been in use for more than a century. The channels of communication are decided in this step of a marketing communication process, which may take the following two forms. Hovland, C.I., I.L. Ehrenberg, A.S.C. (1979), "Decision Support Systems for Marketing Managers," Journal of Marketing, 43 (summer), 9-26. Mercedes-Benz automobiles, for example, are purchased primarily because of social approval motivation, but their ads provide plenty of performance information with which the prospective buyer can rationalize the brand choice. [Rossiter and Percy (1983) discuss creative solutions for overcoming many of these limitations. Recall and recognition thus reverse the stimulus and response roles of the associative link between category need and brand awareness.] Following the low involvement route to persuasion demonstrated by Petty and Cacioppo (1979) and summarized by Petty and Cacioppo (1983), extraneous elements of the message such as executional likability assume much greater weight in low involvement attitude formation and change than they do in high involvement attitude formation and change. Expertise is relevant to informational communication models, both low and high involvement, because perceived expertise enhances attention to and learning of (low involvement) or acceptance of (high involvement) information presented in support of brand attitude. (1982), Advertising and Communication Management, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. The other three communication effects are optional as objectives. Bauer, R.A. (1967), "Source Effect and Persuasibility: A New Look," in Risk Taking and Information Handling in Consumer Behavior, D.F. At likability (attitude toward the ad). MKT 305 Week 4 Quiz 4 Chap 7 Question 1 From a traditional advertising perspective, the basic communication model is referred to as a _____ approach. Measurement focuses on the target audience's own responses rather than the advertiser's intended responses. However, managers will sometimes establish a primary target audience, to whom the communication content is mainly tailored, and one or more secondary target audiences, who will be affected but to a lesser degree. Communication models can, if desired, cease detailed exposition with the establishment of communication objectives. ADVERTISEMENTS: The basic process of marketing communication in International Promotion are as follows: Marketing communication aims at conveying a firm’s message as effectively and accurately as possible. Ray, M.L. A fourth distinction in the models relates to the exposure schedule for different types of advertising (Wells 1981). The message can be conveyed to the receiver in some ways, like humour or fear. However, the solutions are typically elaborate and expensive. For example, an individual may know all about Preparation-H, but not experience the first communication effect, category need, for a hemorrhoid remedy until later in life. Again it should be emphasized that although research may not be available for all these inputs, they will be tacitly assumed anyway in the process of advertising creation. Vaughn, R. (1981), "Row Advertising Works: A Planning Model," Journal of Advertising Research, 20 (October), 27-33. The communication content of the advertising will differ according to the decision-maker target, e.g., men's shirts such as Hathaway being advertised to women as influencers, or children's products such as Fisher-Price toys being advertised to parents as deciders. and can create an idea of the actual things, a communication model helps us to conceptualize the relationship of the various elements involved in … 302-319. Traditionally speaking, there are three standard models of the communication process: Linear, Interactive, and Transactional, and each offers a slightly different perspective on the communication process. Smith, R.E. A third distinction turns now to the cognitive component of brand attitude strategy in the models. The model has been further adapted and reformed by other theorists as General Transactional Model. Presenters must be selected so that their salient personal characteristics are those which amplify audience processing of elements relevant to the particular communication model through which the ad is designed to operate. Advertising Objectives: Types, Goals, Examples, Referral Marketing: Definition & Strategies, Examples of Conventional Sources of Energy, Nuclear Energy: Advantages and Disadvantages. In the real world of advertising management, adequate research often does not exist nor can it afford to be done. (1979), "Issue Involvement Can Increase or Decrease Persuasion by Enhancing Message Relevant Cognitions," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (June), 1915-1926. Narayan Janakiraman, University of Texas at Arlington. The emotional (motivational and energizing) and cognitive (directional) components of brand attitude form the basis for a four-fold typology of brand attitude strategies (Figure 3). The control factor is important to branding because you want to present a clear, consistent message about your brand, including emphasis on factors like product quality, customer service, low price or durability. 231-A. Likability is mainly relevant to the low involvement/transformational motel, where everything about the ad must be likable, including the presenter. It is a process in which two or more persons consciously or unconsciously attempt to influence each other through the use of symbols or spoken words. The effective frequency estimate will vary with the target audience; for instance, brand loyals will require less frequency than brand switchers, other-brand loyals, and new category users, usually in this order (Rossiter and Percy 1983). If a more specifically tailored model is desired, the eight basic models together with the strategy checklist should be of considerable assistance in indicating the questions to be answered in designing the inputs for a specialized model. Rather, our approach postulates a "heterarchy" of effects, at both the processing step and the communication effects step, as will be explained later. There is no one way in which ads work; therefore, there is no single procedure that can validly test all types of advertising. Rothschild (1983), "Using a Text Comprehension Analysis to Compare Recognition and Recall of TV Commercials," in Advertising and Consumer Psychology, L. Percy and A.E. The encoder encodes the message rightly in his mind and transmits it to the receiver. This should not be used as a "cop-out" option by managers because, as we shall see, the advertising communication tactics differ markedly depending on whether the objective is brand recall or brand recognition. A second distinction, also related to the informational-transformational advertising, is that in transformational advertising, it is essential that the target audience like the ad itself, regardless of its opinion of the brand. Brand recall is a considerably more difficult form of brand awareness to achieve. (1975), "A Comparative Analysis of Three Consumer Decision Strategies," Journal of Consumer Research, 2 (June), 29-37. Brand purchase intention is an optional communication objective. Naples, M.J. (1979), Effective Frequency: The Relationship Between Frequency and Advertising Effectiveness, New York: Association of National Advertisers. Inc. Nelson, P.E. These three dichotomies require different ad testing measures, as summarized in Table 5. However, it is not yet reasonable to refer to these as alternative advertising communication models, since these decisions mainly refer to alternative targets of the communication rather than to alternative communication processes. High involvement processing is quite different. Howard, J.A. Larsen (1980), "Remembering Implied Advertising Claims as Facts: Extensions to the 'Real World'," Kansas State University, Department of Psychology, working paper no. In our approach, endorsement is not a separate strategy; rather presenters or endorsers can be used, with any of the advertising communication models, to increase Processing of specific communication effects that need strengthening. In our approach, a target audience is defined behaviorally and attitudinally as the group of people (or households, companies or retailers) from whom sales are expected to come. Managers operate with these theories or models, explicitly or implicitly, whenever they create, approve, or test advertising. Moreover, Preston's is yet another singular model and, as we have seen, singular models cannot account for the different ways in which advertising works.]. Zajonc, R. (1980), "Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences," American Psychologist, 35 (February), 151-175. Advertising appears in such media as print (newspapers, magazines, billboards, flyers), broadcast (radio, television), and Internet, including e-mail and various Web sites. An overall brand attitude measure is used. Verbal, Just as in the communication effects step earlier, there is no set hierarchs of effects in the processing step. Cacioppo (1981), "Attitude and Attitude Change," Annual Review of Psychology, 32, 357-404. Open-ended responses are then coded as correct if they mirror or closely paraphrase the advertiser's intended message, i.e. It can provide an absolute measure only when the exposure-to-test interval is similar to the average real world interval. If the correct model is, however, brand recall, then there are two main brand awareness measurement details to be considered. Janis, and H.H. (1962), Diffusion of Innovations, New York: Free Press. If the correct model is, however, brand recall, then there are two main brand awareness measurement details to be considered. Media weight can also be reduced after initial learning of brand recognition, since it is a relatively easy response to maintain (see also Krugman 1972). Table 2 presents a summary of the advertising tactics recommended for the respective types of brand awareness. Sheth (1969), The TheorY of Buyer Behavior, New York, Wiley. with a size of 170 cm) also have a chance. 1.6 Basic Elements of Communication Model Researchers call our attention to several elements in the communication process: source, message, channel, receiver, effect, feedback and more. Secondly, four fundamental brand attitude strategies are described which, together with two prior types of brand awareness alternatives, produces a total of eight basic advertising communication models. The other is the number of recall responses that are allowed; this number should correspond with the typical evoked set size from which consumers select the brand in the real world. The Communication Model Once a message has been encoded, the next level in the communication process is to transmit or communicate the message to a receiver. Any material published using any medium or activity undertaken by or on behalf of the advertiser over which the advertiser has minimal control. This means that claims in low involvement advertisements should be stated or implied as extremely as possible. Indeed, without brand awareness being experienced at some point prior to the purchase decision, the brand cannot be bought. The basic process of marketing communication, as depicted in figure 9.1, involves the following constituents: 1) Sender: It refers to the marketing firm which is conveying the message. Shimp, T.A. A general structure is proposed for constructing models of "the way advertising works" (advertising communication models). It is a process in which two or more persons consciously or unconsciously attempt to influence each other through the use of symbols or spoken words. Rothschild (1977), "A Paradigm for Research on Consumer Involvement," University of Wisconsin-Madison, Graduate School of Business, working paper no. Step C-3: Points to be Accepted. Involvement is categorized according to the economic theory developed by Nelson (1970), which classifies the brand purchase decision as either "low involvement"Or "high involvement" (search/conviction required). Comparison of advertising effectiveness models . Brand attitude is conceptualized as a summary belief (an overall evaluation) linking the brand to a motivation. Your receivers other communication models for national brand advertising although it frequently occurs in retail direct. 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