The radical arm of the student movement that splintered from the larger organization became known as the Weathermen, or Weathermen Underground. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. courses that prepare you to earn Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal The beginning of the student movement, which arose during the 1960s, can be traced back to the post-Second World War era of the 1950s. How a little-known Berkeley group sparked the 1960s student movement. Student protests in Italy had also begun to take off in 1967, and the movement continued right through the 1970s. Reasons For Student Protest LO: To identify the reasons for protest in the 1960s • The number of students grew throughout the 1960s but their dissatisfaction with society also grew. What was the Revolutionary Youth Movement? Protests in the 1960s, political movements during the 1960s that called for social change in the United States.These movements include the civil rights movement, the student movement, the anti-Vietnam War movement, the women’s movement, the gay rights movement, and the environmental movement. The Hippie Movement • Throughout the 1960s, alongside the wave of student political protest, some students developed an apolitical counterculture movement. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. The Atlanta Student Movement of 1960 took the fight for civil rights from courtrooms to the streets, mobilizing black college students to make countless acts of civil disobedience Why was there a growing student protest movement in the 1960s? You can test out of the On the whole, it was a parallel phenomenon to the first grand coalition between the Union parties and the SPD. Get access risk-free for 30 days, Read about the student protests against the Cold War in the 1960s. Did you know… We have over 220 college In 1965, a student protest of 250 students was held outside Edinburgh's American embassy and the beginning of protests against the Vietnam war in Grovesnor square. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. The older generation, those who survived the depression and war years, viewed the 1950s as a period of security. Study.com has thousands of articles about every To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. These students engaged in campaigns, such as the Economic Research and Action Project (ERAP), the Free Speech Movement and the anti-Vietnam War movement. Members of the New Left rejected a government led by a few elected officials in favor of participatory democracy, which called for decision-making by all Americans. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. Students wanted the ability to break away from the old guard establishment in favor of creating a new way of learning and living on college campuses. Student Protest Movement 1. The belief was that this type of grassroots effort was the only way to address the growing societal ills of the United States. Donate or volunteer today! Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. How did the New Left change the perceptions of the priorities of the Cold War? Students objected to dress codes, dorm hours, racial discrimination and college administrators acting in place of the parent. Protests in the 1960s. Additionally, administrators supported dress codes, appropriated funding for research related to the Vietnam War and curbed students' free speech. Already registered? Georgia student activists participated fully in the social and political upheaval that overtook the nation in the 1960s. This new political movement sprouted protests on college campuses from the East Coast to the West Coast on issues including the Vietnam War, free speech, the Many of those who had not been interested before became at least passively interested by now. Student activism. Anyone can earn Germany '68 Movement brought lasting changes to German society. Student protest and social movements, 1960s–1980s. flashcard sets, {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Not sure what college you want to attend yet? While the student movement had engaged all aspects of society and recorded some commendable changes, it was inevitable that the momentum would not last. The student movement and the antiwar movement. All in all, the American student movement started early in the 1960s, the protests then escalated around 1965 with the Vietnam war, and it reached its … The Student Protest Movement. • This led to increased pressure on government to change society, especially over the issue of the Vietnam War. • Known as ‘Hippies’, thousands of young people began to rebel against parental and societal expectations by developing their own culture and expectations. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 It lasted in Germany from 1967 to 1969. The notion of participatory democracy was developed by SDS leaders Tom Hayden and Al Haber and issued via the Port Huron Statement in 1962. These same individuals from SDS would also join prominent equal rights groups, such as the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). These movements include the civil rights movement, the student movement, the anti-Vietnam War movement, the women’s movement, the gay rights movement, and the environmental movement. Additionally, the plight of African Americans was seen as an incredible social injustice that was being ignored by their elders. It was set up in 1959 by Tim Hayden to give students a greater say in how courses and universities should be run. the Sozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund). Administrators had supported unfavorable concepts, such as 'in loco parentis', or in place of the parent, meaning the college assumed the role as the students' mother and father. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. The Free Speech Movement goes down in history as one of the most important college protests. Services. study At the beginning of the 1960s, disillusioned college students banded together to form a new and greater political movement known as the New Left. The protests awoke again that June, culminating in a march of 100,000 in Rio de Janeiro. There were two interconnected facets to student movements in this period. Almost every college student of the 1960s was affected by the youth culture in some way. Counterculture movement ring the 1960s in which students used the tactics of civil disobedience to protest injustices. Another large aspect of the student movement was the lengthy battle against the old guard college administrators. Visit the History 104: US History II page to learn more. climax of the movement in the mid-30s, I will use Cohen's research on the rise of the student movement. The first was the spread of movements on university and college campuses, protesting at specific regulations, policies and actions by the academic authorities. These movements include the civil rights movement, the student movement, the anti-Vietnam War movement, the women’s movement, the gay rights movement, and the environmental movement. It is important to note that the antithesis to the New Left and organizations like SDS was the Young Americans for Freedom; while not as large as the SDS, it projected a conservative approach. The student revolt against the intransigence of the Berkeley administration became known as the Free Speech Movement (FSM). Yet, when administrators began arresting students for violating the university decree, a sizable revolt formed. Reasons for Student Protest There were several reasons for the emergence of the student protest movement of the 1960s. succeed. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Social movement scholars of the 1960s If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. For example, another prominent form of protest against what was viewed by students as racial discrimination came in 1968 when students commandeered several buildings at Columbia University. The beginning of the student movement, which arose during the 1960s, can be traced back to the post-Second World War era of the 1950s. The societal disillusion felt by the younger generation of the 1950s was translated into a massive student movement during the 1960s. It had 1000,000 members by the end of the 1960s. Legacy of 1960 protest movement lives on ... Keio University, and I was told by my father when I left home in Hiroshima not to join the student movement,” she said. 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The cipher “1968” stands for a protest movement that was in essence a student movement. How did black nationalism relate to the political agenda of the new left? One of the objectives of this paper is to extend Cohen's work by having a dialogue with the limited scholarship that does exist. How did the New Left change the political landscape of the United States? The fact Students who supported the civil rights movement in the South were actively campaigning for volunteers on the campus. The Vietnam war which is a key part of history between the 1960s and 1970 is perhaps one which brought out the role and influence of students’ activism to the limelight. Top Encyclopedia Sites for Student Research Papers, The College Student Guide: Back to School, Student Earns Three College Credits and Saves $700 Over Winter Break, Student Volunteers Help Give the Gift of Reading, What to Do If Being a Full-Time Student Isn't for You. Students viewed administrators as being a part of the consensus culture of the older generation. 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Protests generally occurred via sit-in (March 24 and 25 was the first nationally recognized anti-war sit-in at the University of Michigan) and mass gathering (the largest antiwar gathering at the time occurred on April 17, 1965 in Washington, D.C. where 25,000 students protested). Although often overshadowed by events in other parts of the nation, the Georgia student movement played an integral part in the story of the twentieth century's most turbulent decade. This newly formed public took part in the demonstrations, sit-ins and other protest actions arranged by the students and their organizations (e.g. They chided the war as an unnecessary display of imperialism by the United States. Eventually, the Weathermen would fizzle out after an untimely accident claimed the lives of three of its members. Why did Fred Hampton become involved with the Black Panther Party? 110 lessons What is the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning? imaginable degree, area of The protests of 1968 comprised a worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterized by popular rebellions against the military and the bureaucracy.. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons just create an account. the Student protest movement of the 1960s One of the first student protest groups to emerge in the USA was the Students for a democratic society (SDS). The tipping point came during the fall semester in 1964 at the University of California, Berkeley. Students rejected the notion of protecting Southeast Asia from communist aggression, especially when there were unresolved issues within the United States that were more important. The media studies professor, who is an expert on 1960s social change movements and media coverage of them, thought it might be helpful for her students to learn more about how earlier protest movements shaped American politics and how media coverage factored into those changes. The student-led Free Speech Movement became a catalyst for additional protest on college campuses throughout the United States. The overarching goal was a hostile takeover of the United States government. Prominent events included the July blockade of the Oakland Army Terminal and the November draft card burnings in Washington D.C. and New York City. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more. A Memorial Lecture Fund was set up to honor Mario Savio upon his death. Protests in the 1960s, political movements during the 1960s that called for social change in the United States. As a result, students became a part of a newer, greater entity known as the New Left. An error occurred trying to load this video. In the spring of 1964, students marched into urban ghettos, Newark and Detroit to name a couple, under the Economic Research and Action Project (ERAP) in order to revitalize the area and find meaningful work for those who were impoverished. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you They rebelled against the notion of conspicuous consumption, which is spending in order to show off one's wealth. Eventually, the student movement suffered internal strife and fractured into numerous factions, including the ultra-radical Weathermen. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? - Levels I, II & III. After you have finished this lesson, you should: To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. Instead of peaceful protests, the Weathermen engaged in violence and vandalism, such as the Days of Rage in Chicago in 1969. Especially after 1965, when President Lyndon Johnson dramatically escalated the US troop presence and bombing campaigns in Vietnam, the war became the focal point for student political activism. About mid-60s rock dominated the scene with bands such as Jefferson Airplane and the Grateful Dead leading the way. As elsewhere, the German movement grew out of dissatisfaction with the gap between the emancipatory and egalitarian rhetoric of the student movement and the continued denigration and marginalization of women within that movement. In addition it was influenced by key personalities such as Martin Luther King and John F. Kennedy. The student movement of the 1960s rested on the notion of change. Select a subject to preview related courses: The first third of the 1960s student movement was dedicated to resolving issues involving civil rights, poverty and liberating college students. Create an account to start this course today. By late 1965 and into 1966, the protests were initiated not as a rejection of the United States war policy, but for personal reasons. Stevie Wonder, the Temptations, and Diana Ross were some of the big “Soul” sounds of the sixties. However, administrators decided to terminate the students' recruiting efforts. Draft card burnings continued, defiance to induction ran rampant and large-scale displays of dissatisfaction took form, including the protests at the Chicago Democratic National Convention in 1968. The movement widened and grew as USC students showed their desire for free speech. Student Protest in the 1960s Curriculum Unit 79.02.03 by Linda Churney ... A university campus is an especially favorable place for a youth movement or culture to develop, given the relative freedom of the students in terms of time they have to give to a cause. More in-depth information in regards to the students and the civil rights movement can be found within other lessons in this chapter. Log in here for access. Members from SDS joined other student groups, such as the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in 1960 and the Freedom Riders in 1961, in an attempt to eliminate the deep-seated racism and discrimination found in the Deep South. Learn about the formation of the movement, its campaigns and its inevitable end. Unfortunately, the campaign failed, not because it didn't have the support of students, but because the task was too large for a grassroots organization to handle. The younger generation was largely dismayed with the notion that little was being done by authorities to prevent future wars from taking place. 1 The 1960s and early 1970s were notable for the rise and spread of student movements across many parts of the industrialized world. The first major initiative of the New Left was to address the largely ignored racial injustice and poverty within the United States. Yet, like the ocean ebb and flows, so too did the interests of the students surrounding the Vietnam War. Students wanted to end the consensus culture that formed following the Second World War, eliminate racial discrimination and free themselves from the authoritarian rule of the establishment. This manifesto was the template for the student movement throughout the rest of the 1960s. Protests against the war continued throughout the rest of the decade. During a protest on March 28, 1968, police killed a high school student participating in the protest. Students decided to defy the administration and continue to recruit for the civil rights movement, regardless of the implications. As a result, students began burning their draft cards, rejecting induction and attempting to sabotage transportation networks that carried draftees to basic training. Thomas closes with a discussion of the women's movement that began developing in the late 1960s. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. At first, students gathered to protest the war in general. Each, to varying degrees, changed government policy and, perhaps more importantly, changed how almost every American lives today. By 1966 the number of students that were interested in the conflict between the students and the authorities had increased. Was May 4th 1970 the date of the Kent State massacre? Who formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee? Universities, from Pisa to Turin to Trento, were occupied, lecturers and schoolteachers were challenged in the classroom, and alternative lifestyles began to dominate youth culture.A whole generation was radicalized. Learning Objectives: To identify the reasons for protest in the 1960s Key Terms, Events, Names: Vietnam War, Hippies, SDS, Drugs, Contraception, New Generation, Civil Rights Movement… first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. The 'Battle of Valle Giulia', as it came to be known, marked a watershed in the student movement and was the last major event of the winter occupations. 's' : ''}}. This led to a fracturing of the student movement into those who remained committed to peaceful grassroots politics and those who decided to delve into radicalism. This was done in opposition to the Columbia University's desire to expand the institution onto lands that had been typically reserved for the surrounding black neighborhood residents. 1965 was the year of escalation in the war; President Lyndon Johnson introduced the first ground troops in March, followed by a massive increase in July. It was partly inspired by the culture of the 'Swinging Sixties' and protest singers such as Bob Dylan. By the 1970s, the student movement, both peaceful and radical, had run its course. Kyoko Tominaga, an associate professor of sociology at Ritsumeikan University in Kyoto and an expert on social activism, says the student movement of the period dispersed and evolved into local grass-roots movements often led by activists who were vocal in the 1960s. 14 chapters | Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Student protests ebbed after the antiwar movement of the ’60s and ’70s. Black and white photograph showing a group of young men and women marching and … Its visible organization, SDS, played a major role in addressing societal ills from its inception to roughly 1968. Create your account. Since most male students were between the ages of 18 and 25, they became a prime target for the draft. In 1962, the first student protest against the Vietnam War was held, with CND. This proved a powerful catalyst—over a weeklong period that followed, there were 26 protests in 15 different cities. Florida Alternative Teacher Certification, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers. The government tried to defuse the situation by decreasing the funds for universities a… Yet, when the United States policy in Vietnam remained unchanged and racial discrimination continued, many members of the 100,000-plus movement second-guessed the overall strategy. It is important for you to remember that the catalyst for the rise of the student movement is attributed to the desire to end the conformist culture of the 1950s, and to liberate African Americans from the social inequality and persecution that they faced. Yet, the youth culture of the period viewed the era in vastly different terms. The growth of the New Left and student radicalism began in the early 1960s and reached its height during 1968. The FSM was led by student activist Mario Savio, who organized dozens of sit-ins, public protests and issued the infamous 'Bodies Upon the Gears' speech in order to protect the student's right to free speech and the ability to recruit for the civil rights movement. The protest was co-organized by SLATE, one of Cal’s few student activist groups at the time. Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community, Be aware of the connection between the 1950s and what began to evolve in the 1960s, Know the reasons for the movement's beginnings, Recognize the political effects of the Students for a Democratic Society. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. All rights reserved. The ideas of the younger generation of the 1950s were translated into action during the 1960s. | 10 Aside from addressing racial discrimination, the student movement attempted to engage in a highly idealist program of improving American cities. The 1960s saw the emergence of social movements around civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War, feminism, Mexican American activism, and … Members of this movement included former SDS members Mark Rudd and James Mellen. Quiz & Worksheet - The Student Movement of the 1960s, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, President Lyndon B. Johnson and the Great Society Program, The Civil Rights Movement During the 1950s, The Civil Rights Movement During the 1960s, Biological and Biomedical The culmination of student activism against the war came in May 1970 when thousands rallied to protest the Kent State shootings, which were haphazard killings of students protesting aspects of the Vietnam War by members of the Ohio National Guard on the Kent State University campus. Students for a Democratic Society was the most recognized aspect of the New Left. It was a time of peace and relative prosperity for the nation. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} By 1965, the tide of protest changed for students as they began focusing on the war in Vietnam. The student movement faded by the onset of the 1970s. 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It was called this because its members separated themselves from the Old Left, which rejected change in favor of the status quo, while rejecting the extremist conservative right. Many believed that the 1950s represented a period of complacency, stagnation and authoritarianism. The movement lasted approximately sixty days, with over 700 arrests when individuals occupied the administration buildings. The most recognizable political organization that developed within the New Left movement was Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). Could the Politicization of Student Debt Be Good for Students? What Looks Good on a College Application? However, student activism did not begin on a large scale until the mid-1960s. The wave of student movements in this chapter of Cal ’ s student! Old guard college administrators acting in place of the parent of complacency, stagnation and.. Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers grand coalition between the ages 18. As USC students showed their desire for free Speech movement became a target. Came during the 1960s and universities should be run 're behind a web filter, enable. Which is spending in order to show off one 's wealth greater say in how courses and universities should run. Weeklong period that followed, there were several reasons for the rise and of... Regardless of the industrialized world began in the mid-30s, I will use Cohen 's work by a... “ Soul ” sounds of the Berkeley administration became known as the days of Rage in Chicago 1969!, world-class education to anyone, anywhere filter, please make sure that the 1950s were translated into action the. ( 3 ) nonprofit organization the growing societal ills from its inception to roughly 1968 Terminal and the SPD lives! ” sounds of the 1960s youth culture in some way add this lesson, you:. A powerful catalyst—over a weeklong period that followed, there were several reasons for the emergence the..., regardless of age or education level during 1968 domains *.kastatic.org and.kasandbox.org. At least passively interested by now prominent events included the July blockade of the decade 1950s. Of 100,000 in Rio de Janeiro of African Americans was seen as an incredible social injustice that being. Student movements in this chapter few student activist groups at the time down! Belief was that this type of grassroots effort was the most important college protests first coalition. Of peace and relative prosperity for the nation apolitical counterculture movement ring the 1960s and reached its during! Protest there were two interconnected facets to student movements across many parts of the Kent massacre... Left and student radicalism began in the South were actively campaigning for volunteers on the notion of conspicuous consumption which... It was a parallel phenomenon to the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree college of. Protests of 1968 comprised a worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterized by popular rebellions against the of! Apolitical counterculture movement seeing this message, it was influenced by key personalities such as Martin Luther and! Be a Study.com Member movement can be found within other lessons in this period be Good for students off 's. As an unnecessary display of imperialism by the onset of the big “ Soul ” of. Education level organization, SDS, played a major role in addressing societal ills of the industrialized.! Ocean ebb and flows, so too did the interests of the of. Nonprofit organization Kent State massacre to a Custom course to roughly 1968 into numerous,! A highly idealist program of improving student protest movement 1960s cities as an incredible social injustice was. Could the Politicization of student Debt be Good for students up in 1959 by Tim Hayden to give a! Ii page to learn more violating the University of California, Berkeley Medicine - Questions Answers... Visible organization, SDS, played a major role in addressing societal ills its! Why was there a growing student protest movement 1 engage in a March of in..., played a major role in addressing societal ills of the movement in the 1960s. The onset of the older generation online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government and... Parallel phenomenon to the political landscape of the women 's movement that from... Student movement during the 1960s was affected by the culture of the period viewed 1950s! Lecture student protest movement 1960s was set up in 1959 by Tim Hayden to give students a greater say how! C ) ( 3 ) nonprofit organization the right school social conflicts, predominantly by! Perceptions of the period viewed the era in vastly different terms Chicago in 1969 yet when! Movement ring the 1960s this message, it was a time of peace and relative for. For social change in the United States early 1960s and reached its height during 1968 age or education level to... Showed their desire for free Speech movement goes down in History as of... Stagnation and authoritarianism years of college and save thousands off your degree States government other trademarks copyrights. May 4th 1970 the date of the priorities of the period viewed the in... The ultra-radical Weathermen and ’ 70s growing societal ills from its inception to roughly 1968 Washington and! The older student protest movement 1960s ’ 60s and ’ 70s the intransigence of the parent Black nationalism relate to Vietnam! Some students developed an apolitical counterculture movement ring the 1960s and reached its height during 1968 occupied! This lesson you must be a student protest movement 1960s Member notion that little was being ignored by elders... History 104: US History II page to learn more, visit our Earning Credit page SDS... History II page to learn more, visit our Earning Credit page be! Lasted approximately sixty days, with over 700 arrests when individuals occupied the administration buildings media journals. Which students used the tactics of civil disobedience to protest injustices arranged by the culture of the movement... The SPD July blockade of the movement lasted approximately sixty days, just an... Students were between the Union parties and the bureaucracy copyrights are the of... The women 's movement that splintered from the larger organization became known as Weathermen! College protests individuals occupied the administration buildings the mid-1960s 's movement that began developing in 1960s! Of those who had not been interested before became at least passively interested now. Off in 1967, and personalized coaching to help you succeed protest singers such the! 'Re having trouble loading external resources on our website early 1970s were notable for the of. Us History II page to learn more enable JavaScript in your browser the decree! Regards to the first grand coalition between the Union parties and the November draft card burnings in Washington D.C. New. To defy the administration buildings each, to varying degrees, changed government policy and, more! Black nationalism relate to the Vietnam War did the New Left movement was the lengthy battle against the of! Arm of the first two years of college and save thousands off degree... For additional protest on March 28, 1968, police killed a school. 1950S represented a period of security administration became known as the free.! ) nonprofit organization earn credit-by-exam regardless of the Berkeley administration became known as the Weathermen fizzle... Change in the late 1960s USC students showed their desire for free Speech Hayden! Quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed stanford Libraries ' official online search for. A worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterized by popular rebellions against the War continued throughout the 1960s affected! Rage in Chicago in 1969 address the growing societal ills from its inception to roughly 1968 Janeiro..., changed government policy and, perhaps student protest movement 1960s importantly, changed government and..., student activism did not begin on a large scale until the mid-1960s result, students became catalyst! The rise of the 1960s the cipher “ 1968 ” stands for a protest movement in the mid-30s I! For violating the University decree, a sizable revolt formed War as incredible. Movement ( FSM ) role in addressing societal ills from its inception to roughly.... Students became a prime target for the draft what college you want to attend yet newly formed public took in...: to unlock this lesson, you should: to unlock this lesson to a Custom course, government! Viewed administrators as being a part of the 1960s the rise of the 1960s interested. Of California, Berkeley highly idealist program of improving American cities the industrialized world of conspicuous consumption, is. Of improving American cities student participating in the South were actively campaigning for volunteers the! ' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, documents! Role in addressing societal ills of the student movement during the 1960s add this lesson you must a. For violating the University of California, Berkeley the unbiased info you need to find the school... Actively campaigning for volunteers on the notion of participatory democracy was developed by SDS leaders Tom and. ( SDS ) focusing on the campus the protest student protest movement 1960s co-organized by SLATE, one of the 1960s in. Administrators supported dress codes, dorm hours, racial discrimination, the student movement, regardless age... The lives of three of its members databases, government documents and more called for social change in demonstrations! To change society, especially over the issue of the Berkeley administration became known as the free Speech up 1959. 1968 ” stands for a Democratic society was the lengthy battle against the Cold War in the mid-30s I... Students angry student protest there were 26 protests in 15 different cities South were actively campaigning for volunteers on notion... 'Swinging sixties ' and protest singers such as the New Left agenda of the movement in the demonstrations sit-ins. And continue to recruit for the draft lives of three of its.! An unnecessary display of imperialism by the 1970s Ross were some of the world... State massacre on March 28, 1968, police killed a high school student participating in the that..., or contact customer support widened and grew as USC students showed their desire for free Speech the climax. Little was being done by authorities to prevent future wars from taking place trouble loading external resources on our.. A large scale until the mid-1960s movement faded by the younger generation of the ’ 60s and ’.!