Sci. Tweet. The ultimate goal of our study is to provide a more comprehensive understanding of gender equity in STEM. To summarize, we can state that female and male students indicate different patterns of gender-science stereotype. H. Faulstich-Wieland (Weinheim: Juventa-Verlag, 39–57. (2010). Science 126, 384–390. Brent Orrell. Students were informed about the research project and participated in the survey voluntarily. One hundred and twenty-eight schoolgirls from across Australia, including 90 from regional towns in every state and territory, have been selected to participate in the biggest ever Curious Minds program that immerses underrepresented girls in six months of … 5. An empirical analysis of science textbooks in secondary education not only illustrated the overrepresentation of male protagonists but also revealed stereotypical portrayals of science and scientists (Makarova et al., 2016a). Attitudes to STEM subjects by gender at key stage 4 Research into the attitudes of male and female students aged 15 to 16 towards STEM subjects. Spezial 12, Berufsorientierung im Lebenslauf – theoretische Standortbestimmungen und empirische Analysen [Career orientation in the life course - theoretical approaches and empirical analyses], 1–19. J. Gen. Sci. doi: 10.4135/9781446249222.n49, Eccles, J. S. (1994). OECD (2006). First, we analyzed career aspirations among the secondary school students by carrying out x2-test (chi-square test) for the binomial dependent variable STEM study choice (see Table 2). 66, 385–419. Accordingly, the low proportion of women in STEM leads to the spread of a gender stereotypical image of math and science as a male domain and beliefs about male supremacy in technical and math-intensive fields. Figure 2. Sci. 67, 255–265. 31, 1115–1132. Opinions about STEM content and classroom experiences as predictors of upper secondary school students' career aspirations to become researcher or teachers. The results indicate that for both sexes, math has the strongest masculinity attribution, followed by physics as second, and, finally, chemistry with the lowest masculinity attribution. Another study among school children and university students by Weinreich-Haste (1981) assessed the gender image of different academic subjects using ratings on a six-point masculine-feminine scale. Neuhaus, J., and Borowski, A. And some of the highest-earning STEM occupations, such as computer science and engineering, have the lowest percentages of women workers. Psychol. On the other end of the spectrum, Washington, D.C. had the smallest gap (6.8%). How students see scientists: mostly male, mostly white, and mostly benevolent. Relying on large-scale panel data on adolescents from Sweden (218 classrooms, 4,998 students), we observe a widening gender gap in preferring STEM subjects within a year (girls, 19 to 15 percent; boys, 21 to 20 percent). The lessons build on one another and cover the origins of the internet, binary code, an introduction to programming languages and coding, deconstructing a computer and other skills. Sci. Masculinity index of chemistry, math, and physics. The highest-performing students in maths and science were also asked about their career expectations, with significant differences between girls and boys in the UK. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Alien or alike? Psychol. Generalized Linear Models, 2nd Edn. Sex Roles 66, 220–234. Finally, the paper discusses ways of changing the image of math and science in the context of secondary education in order to overcome the disparities between females and males in STEM. By several measures, there really is no STEM gender gap in higher education. (1989). How to help close the gender gap in STEM. To sum up, young women who aspire to study a STEM major stereotype the three subjects as less strongly masculine compared to young women who aspire to study non-STEM subjects. To assess the field of study choice, the secondary school students were asked about their subject preference for study at a university or at a university of applied sciences after the successful completion of secondary school. Professional Development. Pers. Expand after-school and summer STEM opportunities for girls. Abschlüsse der universitären Hochschulen und Fachhochschulen: Basistabellen [University Diploma and University of Applied sciences Diploma: Tables]. And they don’t have to do it alone. Binary numbers key, Lesson 4: Cyber Security and Protecting Yourself, Teacher syllabus Pakistan has one of the highest gender gaps in the world and it is the third least performer in gender parity according to a report published by World Economic Forum in 2020. 5 ways to close the gender gap for women in STEM According to a new study, 91 percent of women who work in STEM admitted that gender discrimination remains a career obstacle. Sci. Sci. So, no matter where you look, the gender disparity in STEM jobs is obvious, and it has many wondering what the culprit is. In our study attitudes toward gender and science were measured using semantic differentials consisting of 25 pairs of adjectives with semantically opposite meanings (e.g., hard—soft, strong—weak, robust—frail) to assess the connotations of the four terms man, chemistry, math, and physics on a seven-point scale (1 = greatly, 2 = fairly, 3 = somewhat, 4 = neither, 5 = somewhat, 6 = fairly, 7 = greatly). The participants were on average 19 years old (SD = 1.0). 20, 831–847. New York followed this with a gender gap of nearly 13%. Based on a survey of about 3,50,000 participants in 66 nations, this study concluded that explicit and implicit national gender-science stereotypes were weaker in countries with a higher female enrollment in tertiary science education. Sci. We report the Exp(β), which indicates the likelihood of an occurrence of the tested effect. Articles, Munich University of the Federal Armed Forces, Germany, Pennsylvania State University (PSU), United States. The methodological advantage of the semantic differential scale is that it highly adaptable in assessing respondents' connotative association with any concept (Osgood et al., 1957; Heise, 1970). Frauen in MINT-Berufen: Retrospektive Wahrnehmung des mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Unterrichts auf der Sekundarstufe I [Women in STEM professions: retrospective perception of mathematics and science in secondary school education]. In view of the theoretical and empirical framework of the study, we define the gender stereotype of three school subjects as the extent of association of each school subject with masculine traits (see section Measurements; masculinity index). With respect to the perception of different STEM disciplines, studies among adolescent youth have shown that female students show a more pronounced gender stereotype for math compared to male students, who are less likely to exhibit implicit gender-stereotypic associations (Steffens et al., 2010). Following this notion, our study aimed to analyze the gender stereotype of school science subjects among female and male students and the impact of gender-science stereotypes on the career aspirations of young people. Women in STEM: Bridging the gender gap. A field of study was labeled as female-atypical (male-typical) when the proportion of women who received a master's degree in that field was below 30 per cent. Career Choice Dev. 83:44. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.83.1.44, Nosek, B. The report said the new findings could account for up to 80% of the vast and persistent gender gap in STEM studies because they point to a wide … Finally, the most recent meta-analysis of five decades of U.S. DAST studies based on 78 studies (N = 20,860) among children grades K-12, shows a growth in children's depictions of female scientists in later decades. The impact of engineering identification and stereotypes on undergraduate women's achievement and persistence in engineering. The STEM fields—science, technology, engineering, and mathematics—have always had a woman problem. Among those are the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) (e.g., Chambers, 1983; Finson, 2002; Scherz and Oren, 2006), the Implicit Association Test (IAT) (e.g., Greenwald et al., 1998; Nosek et al., 2002, 2009), explicit stereotype assessments using attitude questionnaires (e.g., Kessels, 2005), semantic differential assessments (e.g., Herzog et al., 1998; Makarova and Herzog, 2015), and individual or group interviews (e.g., Archer et al., 2010). Society and Culture. Masculinity index of physics and career aspirations. The image of a school subject can, for example, be depicted in school textbooks. (2002). doi: 10.1007/s11218-013-9232-8, Cvencek, D., Meltzoff, A. N., and Greenwald, A. G. (2011). It seems that male participants show more endorsement of the gender-science stereotype by regarding STEM subjects as more suitable for boys and attributing less abilities in the STEM disciplines to the female gender compared to the male gender. J. Vocat. Based on Eccles' expectancy-value model, which highlights the impact of culturally based stereotypes and identity-related constructs on educational and occupational choices (Eccles, 1994; Eccles and Wigfield, 2002), a number of studies have shown that academic self-concept and subject interests are among the most relevant determinants in students' selection of secondary school majors (Nagy et al., 2008). And then something happens: A gender gap in participation starts to appear as girls take fewer of the more advanced STEM courses and tests as they get closer to college. doi: 10.1037/11706-004, Nagy, G., Trautwein, U., Baumert, J., Köller, O., and Garrett, J. Ward (Dordrecht: Springer), 491–531. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. A product of a partnership between AAUW and Dell, the Playbook on Best Practices: Gender Equity in Tech equips advocates and employers with data-driven strategies and actionable steps to increase the representation of women in engineering and computing fields – to accelerate the rate of change and break through barriers for women in the workplace. Agentic traits are associated with success in science more than communal traits. The role of motivation in gendered educational and occupational trajectories related to maths. This allows us to investigate the impact of gender-science stereotypes of different science subjects on students' aspirations to study STEM. As bipolar constructs, gender stereotypes imply that what is masculine is not feminine and vice versa (Deaux and LaFrance, 1998; Worell, 2001; Renfrow and Howard, 2013). 79, 31–41. Only 21% of engineering majors and 19% of computer science majors are women. • Physics (Figure 4): Considering female students who had potentially chosen a non-STEM study major, physics was significantly more highly stereotyped as a masculine subject compared to young women with a STEM career choice (p ≤ 0.001). Women with STEM jobs earned 33 percent more than comparable women in non-STEM jobs – considerably higher than the STEM premium for men. This study contributes to the line of research on the gender stereotype of science by analyzing the gender-related image of three school subjects. Girls are the 'greatest untapped population of Stem professionals' - but teacher Toni Scullion has ideas for changing mindsets. In South Korea, as in other countries, the percentage of women in medicine (61.6%) is much higher than the percentage of women in engineering (15.4%) and other more math-based stem fields. It is, thus, important to distinguish between different STEM disciplines and subjects when addressing the gender gap in the STEM field (Rosser, 2012; Ertl et al., 2017). Emphasize strong and visible role models of women and women of color in math and science fields. Behav. 42, 1049–1071. Source There is a need to reduce the gender gap in Science Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) studies and attention should be given … Moreover, this study has shown that students with stereotype-consistent interest in STEM-related school subjects were particularly likely to endorse gender-science stereotypes. Self-to-prototype similarity as a mediator between gender and students' interest in learning to code. H.M.G. As a result, the gender wage gap is smaller in STEM jobs than in non-STEM jobs. At the same time, female participants are more likely to associate math and science more strongly with the male gender and masculine traits than with the female gender and feminine traits. doi: 10.18574/nyu/9780814776452.001.0001, Scherz, Z., and Oren, M. (2006). With respect to differences between female and male students in the gender-stereotypical connotations of science, our findings illustrate that female secondary school students perceive all three subjects considerably more strongly as a male domain than do male students. The precise way in which a scientist was pictured by middle school students was reported in a study by Scherz and Oren (2006, p. 977): “The common image was that of a scientist as a bespectacled male with unkempt hair in a white lab-coat.” Moreover, the following quote from a study by Mead and Metraux (1957) on high-school students' image of a scientist highlights how persistent the scientist-stereotype remains over decades. The Gender Gap in STEM Persists. doi: 10.1002/sce.20399, BlaŽev, M., Karabegović, M., Burušić, J., and Selimbegović, L. (2017). Gottfredson's theory of circumscription, compromise, and self-creation. Finance, legal, HR. “Gender,” in The Handbook of Social Psychology, eds D.T. As the gender-related image of an academic discipline has a considerable effect on young people's career aspirations, a critical evaluation of the school subjects' image might be one way to break through the gender-image-driven limitations of the career horizons of female and male students. “Social role theory,” in Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology, eds P. van Lange, A. Kruglanski, and E. T. Higgins (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage), 458–476. (2009). doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153, Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., and Linn, M. C. (2010). Finally, a study among undergraduate science majors demonstrated that a stronger gender-science stereotype has a diminishing effect on identification with science and science career aspirations among women, whereas, among men, a stronger gender-science stereotype boosts their identification with science and their career aspirations in science fields (Cundiff et al., 2013). We aggregated the masculinity index for math and the two science subjects for the model of female students, because separate models showed nearly the same effect for each individual subject, and therefore we could increase the power of the model in terms of cases. Gendered Paths into STEM. A., and Wingfield, L. C. (2010). doi: 10.1080/13803610600765687. Women make up only 28% of the workforce in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM), and men vastly outnumber women majoring in most STEM fields in college. To summarize, we can state that gender-science stereotyping has been shown to hinder the self-identification of young women with STEM academic subjects and fields and also to negatively affect their self-concept and their subject interests. As the study of Thomas (2017) showed, a teacher's implicit science-is-male stereotype can contribute to gender differences in female students' motivational beliefs and probably also their gendered educational choices. Many girls lose confidence in math by third grade. Learn more about how we can change policies and practices to increase opportunities in STEM for girls and women. Mishawaka: Wiley and Sons. Especially the academic aspirations of women who strongly identified as female were affected by the gender stereotypic image of science (Lane et al., 2012). Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik online. There is a whole tangle of reasons why the gender gap in Stem exists. doi: 10.1002/tea.21462, Steffens, M. C., Jelenec, P., and Noack, P. (2010). The development of children's gender-science stereotypes: a meta-analysis of 5 decades of US draw-a-scientist studies. She looked down her nose at me and sneered, ‘What lady would take mathematics instead of Latin?’. This gender imbalance is often referred to as the STEM gap. In turn, such beliefs affect young people's career choices, leading to a mutual reinforcement of gender stereotypes, and gender gaps in career related interests and choices (Nosek et al., 2009, p. 10,596). Teach. Eval. Figure 4. Huber, R. A., and Burton, G. M. (1995). By the time students reach college, women are significantly underrepresented in STEM majors — for instance, only around 21% of engineering majors are women and only around 19% of computer and information science majors are women. Breaking Into the Lab: Engineering Progress for Women in Science. Available online at: (accessed February 14, 2016). Promote mentorship, sponsorship networking and incorporate male ally programs. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. With regard to the impact of the masculinity image of math and science on secondary students' career aspirations, the findings of our study show that young women who potentially chose STEM as a field of study at university perceived all three school subjects—math, physics, and chemistry—as less masculine than did those young women who chose other majors. Educ. According to the theoretical framework of Gottfredson (2002, 2005), occupational aspirations are incorporated in the individual self-image developed during socialization from early childhood through adolescence. The stereotypical computer scientist: gendered media representations as a barrier to inclusion for women. FSO (2012). In 2019, WISE (Women Into Science and Engineering) celebrated hitting their 2020 target of reaching one million women working in core-STEM roles in the UK. (2004). Policy Report. Educ. Informed consent was implied through survey completion; therefore, they were not required to provide written consent to participate. J. Educ. Psychol. studied the wage gap and gender inequality in tech fields and released a report called 2019 State of Wage Inequality in the Workplace. Women hold a disproportionately low share of STEM undergraduate degrees, particularly in engineering. Women hold a disproportionately low share of STEM undergraduate degrees, particularly in engineering. These three science subjects were chosen because females are strongly underrepresented in math and physics within the educational sector and career fields, whereas chemistry has a more balanced gender ratio. What goes well with physics? Soc. 107, 631–644. 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