Stratospheric cloud. The pH values of 1.8 and 1.9 measured in 1983 and 1984, respectively, were similar to the April 1992 value. Since then, two boiling pools on the NW side of the crater had dried out, but three new large boiling pools 5-10 m in diameter had appeared 100 m to the S. The boiling pools gave off much more vapor than earlier. University of Wyoming balloon flights from Laredo, Texas 17-19 May passed through two primary layers, at 15-20 km and 24-27 km altitude. At Ostuacán, more than 10 km from the dam, the water temperature was measured at 82°C. Res., 20: 117-132. Lidar at Mauna Loa, Hawaii and Fukuoka, Japan continued to detect dense layers of stratospheric material through early June, at altitudes of as much as 32 km over Hawaii. Armienta M.A., De la Cruz-Reyna S., and Macías, J.L., 2000, Chemical characteristics of the crater lakes of Popocatepetl, El Chichón, and Nevado de Toluca volcanoes, Mexico: JVGR 97, p. 105-125. 4, p. 293-296. Information Contacts: P. McCormick and W. Fuller, NASA; R. Reiter, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, W. Germany; T. DeFoor, MLO; M. Hirono, Kyushu Univ., Japan; S. Hayashida, Nagoya Univ., Japan; T. Fujita, Meteorological Research Inst., Japan; E. Brooks, Saudi Arabia; A. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales. Image courtesy of NASA.Image 3: The village of Francisco Leon before/after the 1982 eruption. After the 2007 rainy season the lake volume decreased, coinciding with a change to pure vapor emission from the geyser-like spring since August 2007 (figure 10). Information Contacts: José Luis Macías, Michael F. Sheridan, and Carmelo Ferlito, SUNY, Buffalo, NY; Juan Manuel Espíndola, Servando De la Cruz-Reyna, and M. Aurora Armienta, Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM. James Luhr calculated that [~0.30] km3 of tephra (converted to a density of 2.6 g/cm3) had fallen within the 0.1 cm isopach (figure 2). Plumes on satellite images not caused by eruptions. Data from ground-based lidar distant from El Chichón indicated that the dense portion of the stratospheric cloud ejected 4 April was spreading slowly northward. No historical eruptions were known before the Plinian eruption in 1982, although solfataras and hot springs were present in the summit area and on the flanks. Tremor, gas fluxes, inferences, and ongoing monitoring.The authors of this report inferred that the low-frequency tremor and rumbling beneath the crater floor stemmed from fluid migrations inside the boiling aquifer, sometimes causing small intra-aquifer phreatic explosions. Res., 83: 173-196. Image from Tilling (2009).Image 4: Satellite image (optical and thermal) of the April 4 plume from El Chichón. Jimenez Z, Espindola V H, Espindola J M, 1999. On Mar. Previous temperatures had not exceeded 38°C since January 1983 when the lake reached 56°C. Figure 8 shows the lake in 2005, the smallest volume at this crater lake yet observed. During the seismic recording, the volcano was visited to obtain samples. Interesting seismic activity occurred before, during, and following the recent eruptions of El Chichon Volcano in southeastern Mexico. Minor microseismic activity was continuing in early July. He Chichonal , also called Chichón, is a volcano located in the state of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. We think that the ashfall most likely was dust produced during large rockfalls from the crater walls, and the noise was the sound of the rockfalls. No significant seismic activity has been recorded at El Chichón in recent months although some tectonic seismicity has occurred SE of the volcano. El Chichon last let go in spectacular style in 1982, destroying local communities and killing 2,000 people. Rumors in El Volcán (5 km E of the crater) that the volcano would erupt on its 10th anniversary caused many women and children to leave their homes. A good correlation appeared between gas flux and ground temperature. The acidity and temperature of the lake water were similar to 1992 and 1993. At lower latitudes, the strongest layers were centered above 25 km. Conflicting reports persist about the fate of the approximately 1,000 residents of a SW flank village that was apparently in the path of one or more pyroclastic flows ejected 28 March or 3-4 April. Although no heavy rainfall occurred between 18 April and 8 May, brief rains were common at night and may have diluted the lake with meteoric water, raising its pH. It was the worst volcanic disaster in Mexico's recorded history. Several terraces representing stationary lake levels were visible. Luhr J F, Kimberly P G, Siebert L, Aranda-Gomez J J, Housh T B, Kysar Mattietti G, 2006. Geof Internac, 26: 85-108. 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