Several theories and models have tried to explain the facts that may be involved in acquisition of a second language, Theories as the Behaviourism theories which state that acquisition is just a set of habits a learner may acquire or Nativist theories that suggest we all have a natural-born ability to acquire a language or models as Socio –linguistic models, Interactional models that express that language and society are connected and the former is affected by society , etc . To learn your next language faster, you’re probably looking for the right language theory. Deshacer, Second Language Acquisition: Processs and Hypotheses. Studies are shown that when learners are involved in activities where they use the target language (collaborative task activities) they can have access to their partner’s knowledge and temporarily with their peers’ assistance become more proficient. The Input hypothesis is the most accepted and study theory within the linguistic field, it states that being exposed to comprehensible language (comprehensible Input) is the first step to acquire a language. Do you know what word you first spoke? One of the earliest scientific explanations of language acquisition was provided by Skinner (1957). Krashen makes a difference between acquisition and learning. The order that the learners follow has four steps: 1. Within a few years, not only was the order of the signs important, it also mattered where signs were produced. Vivian Cook Other on-line writings Second Language Acquisition Multi-competence. First Language Acquisition studies the infants' acquisition of their native language, whereas Second Language Acquisition deals with acquisition of additional languages in both children and adults. For instance, the necessity to transmit and idea, interaction, negotiation of meaning and even processes within the learner talk such as scaffolding. Babbling 3. 5) अपने उत्तर लिखने से पहले पेज पर बाएं, ऊपर और नीचे 4 सेमी का अंतर छोड़ें। इस प्रकार –, 5) Before writing your answers, skip the difference of left, top and bottom 4cm on the page. Vivian Cook Other on-line writings Second Language Acquisition Multi-competence. Schumann with his Acculturation Model, Giles and Byme with his Accommodation Theory state that learners who are positive towards the group who speak the target language for either cultural or personal reason will have more possibilities to acquire the second language However, it seems essential to mention that both Schumann and Giles based his theories only on Second language environments where learners are constantly exposed to the target language (immigrants living in a foreign language Country) and do not mention the internal mechanisms that take place when learners acquire a language . Producing language is more than simply being involved in communicative activities and just uses the language because the activity requires it. However, he based his Affective Filter Hypothesis on formal Second language instruction where motivation and the different feelings towards L2 a learner has, from the target language affects the quantity of Input learners receive and can be turned into Intake. FUNIBER , The learning of a second language – input and interaction , pp 35-40. However, we must remember Krashen distinguishes between Acquisition and Learning as two different processes, where acquisition is a natural process and learning is the result of formal instruction. Critically evaluate Sternberg’s information processing approach. SECTION – C Answer the following questions in 50 words each. Figure 2.1 summarizes the five stages of language acquisition and shows some appropriate prompts and sample questions to use for each stage of second language acquisition. Consequently, learners are learning language. 1. 8) IGNOUMPC-001 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2019-209 आपको STUDY CENTRE पर SUBMIT करना होगा।. Language acquisition is the study of the processes through which learners acquire language. On the other hand Krashen states that pushing learners to produce the language will only generate stress and anxiety what will increase their Affective Filter and affect acquisition , this is to some extent true, However, Swains claims that if we don’t push learners to produce the language, they will simply acquire strategies to make themselves understood in the classroom what will affect the development of their Interlanguage (Fossilization) and will not contribute to their language competence . 10 x 3 = 30 Marks. Discuss the different activities you would use for teaching spelling to the learners. Answer: Click Here. Explain the second language acquisition process. However, Input hypothesis does not refer to production as much as Comprehensible Output does. In a general sense it is a term to describe learning a second language. Long (1985) states “Interactional modifications in conversation between native speakers and non native speakers are the mechanism for this to take place”. Explain the single-system versus dual-system hypotheses regarding acquisition of second language. 3. Question 8. Sociolinguist models see language development as part of the social and psychological development, and this primarily takes place when the learner uses the language ( what tends to happen in CO).Therefore acquiring a language is not only receiving it passively, but using mental cognitive processes to transmit it. As we see in The Output Hypothesis several processes take place. Question Title * Please choose an appropriate title for the question so it can be answered easier. 5. It refers to any language learned in addition to the first language and the differences between both processes. The number of language minority and language majority students must be balanced, with neither group compromising more than 2/3's of the class. They string words together based on meaning and not syntax. Not only does the process of learning a language differ from the process of acquiring a language, but the processes and structures within the brain differ between the two activities as well. According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. Second language acquisition is a process by which people learn a second language. Therefore, when Learners try and finally manage to produce utterances that can be understood by their partners, they have acquired new language knowledge. Critically discuss the Investment and Confluence theory of creativity. 2. 7. Research suggests that this natural order seems to transcendage, the learner's native language, the target language, and the conditions under which the second language is being learned. Another important feature of Comprehensible Output is that it promotes social interaction which turns to be an important factor for Psychological development which is commonly based on interactions. 8) You must submit your IGNOU MPC-001 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2019-20 at your Study Center. Section – C Have you ever considered how many words you have learned over your lifetime? Thus it is a university with a difference. The 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the product of a … also offered here. We need to learn vocabulary and grammar in order to achieve our goal. second language acquisition. SECTION – C. Answer the following questions in 50 words each. FRONT PAGE is something like this. 9. ARNAIZ, P & PEÑATE, M. El papel de la producción oral (output) en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera (L.E) el estudio de sus funciones. 3. we see we cannot talk about Input without referring to interaction and modifications in it to make comprehensible (I+1) . Discuss the biology of language acquisition. 1) First of all create FRONT PAGE of ASSIGNMENT. Skinner argued that children learn language based on behaviorist reinforcement principles by associating words with meanings. By knowing the stages of language acquisition and stage-appropriate questions, you can engage students at … SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION This is the acquisition of a second language after the mother tongue has been (largely) acquired. 3. 5. Explain Thurstone’s theory of intelligence. 8. Content and literacy instruction given in both languages to all students. Sound Imitation 4. “An incorrect output shows that the learner has formulated a hypothesis about the language and tries to test it” (Corder, 1981) the output also allows learners to reflect on their language (conscious reflection), Krashen position against Output hypothesis is hard, since he considers that Output is rare and it does not contribute to language acquisition. 2. They begin to identify elements that begin and end sentences. GUFFO.IN © 2019 TERM & CONDITIONS AND PRIVATE POLICIES. Explain the causes of these disorders. However, it is important to mention that not only by listening to great deals of the target language, we will manage to acquire it since the language information a learner can be exposed to is not the same information he/she assimilates. But the second language is a new aspect of the person’s life if s/he chooses it to be. For instance Output helps learners to get fluency, to be precise in terms of use of the language (grammar, context, vocabulary and pronunciation) and helps learners to prove their knowledge. Second language acquisition is a process by which people learn a second language. Don't be confused, we're about to change the rest of it. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, Categories Hypothesis, Language, Language Acquisition. Comprehensible output (CO) suggests that when learners are engaged in interaction, more negotiation of meaning occurs. They produce single words. NOTE: All questions are compulsory. This essay refers to two of the most important theories in this field, the Input Hypothesis by Krashen and the Comprehensible Output Hypothesis by Swain, their differences, similarities and their relation with other theories proposed. don’t copy form any other answersheet or ignou book. Comprehensible Output Hypothesis (CO) was developed to show that not only receiving input was useful to acquire a language but also using the language comprehensible. Explain the second language acquisition process. Thus, during some point of the interaction he will receive feedback from his interlocutor; he will have tested a hypothesis and will have acquired a new form he did not know before. Although He has not produced the utterance grammatically correct, he has used the previous knowledge obtained and has attempted to transmit an idea. In th… Discuss the biology of language acquisition. All in all, these results can be said to establish that first language acquisition and second language learning are similar processes, but differ in specific content and order of acquisition; baking a cake and baking a loaf of bread may utilise the same process but require different ingredients, oven temperature and cooking time. Krashen Input Hypothesis has generated a lot of research in the field of language acquisition; since lots of theories refer to it (even Swains gives importance to Input as one of the causes of language acquisition); however it has also generated critics. Human language capacity is represented in the brain. On the other hand, Learning is just the result of formal instruction and occurs when learners consciously study a language. A review of the role of the output in second language acquisition with anecdotal examples from Japanese’s learner experiences, pp DOWNLOAD HERE . The primary emphasis is on innovation, flexibility and cost effectiveness. Besides, Krashen stresses that natural acquisition is more importance in terms of relevance and suggests that learning does not take to acquisition. Additive and subtractive bilingualism, Tags: ASSIGNMENT 2020-21ignouignou assignment 2020IGNOU MPC-001 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2018-19ignou question paperIGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTignou solved assignment 2019 20ignou solved assignment 2020-21MPC-001 : COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND MEMORY, […] IGNOU MPC-001 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2019-20 […]. Some people use the term of language acquisition for all the phases that lead to language fluency, including learning to read and write. When learners are pushed to use the language, they will always find problems to communicate, therefore, they will have to test their knowledge, and when they finally have their ideas successfully transmitted, they will have proved their hypothesis correct and will have acquired a new form. Verbal Understanding 5. Screaming 2. Once the boy and girl had been mentioned, push produced to one side would mean the girl was pushed, and to the other side would mean the boy was pushed. 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