The majority of studies are conducted by means of one-dimensional gas chromatography because this technique has many advantages such as high resolution and high sensitivity. alcohol, water and flavourants. The study on this subject was conducted on 17 samples of commercial vodka purchased in Poland by using FT-IR spectrometry and two models, and by applying the alcoholometric method described in the Polish standard PN-A-79529-4:2005. Coumarin is present, among others, in Polish vodka Żubrówka which is made from rye and flavoured with the grass species Hierochloe odorata growing in Białowieża Forest in Poland. Vitamins are designated by capital letters, sometimes followed by numerical subscripts, e.g. The ECD is a nondestructive detector which allows the determination of the concentrations of halogenated compounds at ppb-ppt level. Public Health 6:2090–2101, CAS  The results were comparable with the ones obtained using the classical chemical analyses. 1996; Tsuchiya et al. Distillation does not produce alcohol, it merely concentrates it. gas and ion chromatography to authenticate the alcohols and detect falsified products. Besides the above-mentioned detectors, the electron capture detector (ECD) and flame photometric detector (FPD) have been used for analysing vodkas. improved resolution, better sensitivity and structured chromatograms), two-dimensional chromatography is not used often. Magdalena Śliwińska declares that she has no conflict of interest. Moreover, chronic toxicity is observed, too. Electronic nose instruments based on sensors are not selective with respect to particular compounds. Formaldehyde was not detected in one sample, while in the other one, it was at the lowest level with respect to the other investigated alcohols (De Oliveira et al. Despite the observed discrepancies, all vodkas fulfilled the EU norm according to which the minimum ethanol content in vodka should be 37.5 % (Sujka and Koczoń 2012). Ragazzo-Sanchez et al. 2008). Zesz Probl Postep Nauk Rol 571:107–114, Sujka K, Koczoń P, Gorska A, Wirkowska M, Reder M (2013) Sensoryczne i spektralne cechy wybranych wyrobów spirytusowych poddanych procesowi liofilizacji. Microchim Acta 160:283–289, Lachenmeier DW, Anh PTH, Popova S, Rehm J (2009) The quality of alcohol products in Vietnam and its implications for public health. The alcohol content measurement is traditionally performed by using the hydrometric or pycnometric method. The chemical analyses were carried out on 114 samples of cachaça, 18 of whiskey, 9 of liqueur, 7 of vodka, 2 of tequilas, 1 of wine, and 1 of beer. The electronic nose is an analytical device for the fast detection and identification of odorant mixtures; its mode of operation mimics the human sense of smell. Some companies even make the gimmick go to six or seven times distilled! Conductometric sensors are the most frequently utilized. Pour une vodka à base de pomme de terre, on les cuit afin de transformer l'amidon qu'elles contienne en sucres. The question immediately arises as to the molecular basis, if any, of vodka taste perception. The solution with a minimum ethanol content of 96 %, which is used to produce vodkas, also contains trace amounts of other compounds such as, esters, aldehydes, higher alcohols, methanol, acetates, acetic acid and fusel oil. Chemical Composition of a Mo(u)rning Beverage. The formula of drinking alcohol is ethanol, CH3CH2OH. Similar research was conducted on vodka, gin, whiskey and brandy by applying sensory evaluation and spectral analysis (Sujka et al. Most carbonyl compounds have a negative impact on the aroma and taste of spirit-based beverages. Top Answer . Czech J Food Sci 30:474–482, Sowiński P, Wardencki W, Partyka M (2005) Development and evaluation of headspace gas chromatography method for the analysis of carbonyl compounds in spirits and vodkas. Although the vodka composition is mainly analysed by means of gas chromatography, there are studies in which spectrophotometry, atomic absorption and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been applied. Laws, 10582–10589. Siříšťová et al. The FPD was used by Leppänen et al. The collected samples were analysed with regard to the content of ethanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, amyl alcohols, 1-hexanol, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate and ethyl octanoate. 2010). In the case of spirit-based beverages, HPLC is used rather rarely. Answer. Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка, Swedish: vodka) is a clear distilled alcoholic beverage with different varieties originating in Poland, Russia and Sweden. 2009). PLoS ONE 4:1–7, Leppänen O, Denslow J, Ronkainen P (1979) A gas chromatographic method for the accurate determination of low concentrations of volatile sulphur compounds in alcoholic beverages. 2013). Besides this analysis, a study aimed at distinguishing among vodka brands was also conducted. By definition, vodka in the U.S. must “be without distinctive character, aroma, taste or color,”according to the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). All Rights Reserved. The main constituents in the distilled lime oil, like the one we sell is a-pinene, b-pinene, myrcene, limonene, terpinolene, 1,8-ceneole, linalool, borneol, citral and traces of neral acetate and geranyl acetate. J Agric Food Chem 51:6233–6239, Kolomiets OA, Lachenmeier DW, Hoffmann U, Siesler HW (2010) Quantitative determination of quality parameters and authentication of vodka using near infrared spectroscopy. It found that a varying concentration of hydrates surround ethanol molecules in different brands, and “these ethanol clusters undoubtedly … Absolute alcohol is a common name for the chemical compound ethanol. Vodka is made from ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin that has been produced via fermentation of potatoes, grains or other agricultural products. The types of vodka production also differ, which influences the final composition of the product. 1996). 2014-08-28 18:38:48 2014-08-28 18:38:48. A GC-FID system was used, among others, to determine methanol content in commercial and illegally produced vodkas. Res. S'inscrire avec Google. Vodka is nearly pure ethanol, or C 2 H 5 OH for our fellow chemistry geeks. Springer, Berlin, p 341, Ciosek P, Wróblewski W (2007) Sensor arrays for liquid sensing–electronic tongue systems. The soft taste of vodka is achieved by multiple filtering of alcohol through activated charcoal, followed by dilution with water, the latter being distilled, demineralized or treated with Permutit or water softeners (Regulation, E. C. N. 110/2008; Christoph and Bauer-Christoph 2006; Ng et al. Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка, Swedish: vodka) is a clear distilled alcoholic beverage with different varieties originating in Poland, Russia and Sweden. As a result of this, there could be a higher risk of methanol concentration in products. Dimethyl sulphide was present in vodkas at very low concentration so its influence on the aroma and taste of the vodkas was insignificant. The electronic nose usually employs specific chemical sensors which generate a characteristic aroma profile, a so-called fingerprint, in response to being exposed to the investigated gaseous mixture. 2009). Flow injection analysis–isotope ratio mass spectrometry (FIA-IRMS) was employed for the investigation of authenticity of 81 selected alcohol-based beverages including vodkas. The content of EC in Brazilian vodkas (Pereira et al. In this study, vodkas originating from Russia, Poland, and Sweden and vodkas without the country of origin, but purchased in Germany were investigated. In Russia, vodka is mostly produced from wheat; while in Poland, a rye mash is most frequently used. This review paper shows that despite many years of research and using numerous techniques, vodka still remains an interesting object of investigations. In both cases, besides GC-FID analysis, the analysis by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed as it gives better results compared to GC-FID analysis. This liquid was obtained by dry sublimation of a mixture of alum, nitrate, copper sulphate and ammonia in a glass covered with a vessel. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-015-0089-7, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-015-0089-7, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Until now, the chemicals belonging to alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, terpenes, aromatic compounds and volatile sulphur compounds have been detected in vodkas. 2006). The task of distinguishing among the different types of alcohols was performed via ICP spectroscopy (Kokkinofta et al. Analysis takes a short time, which makes it suitable for online techniques. In general, gas chromatography is used to analyse the vodka composition; however, there were some reports on the use of other techniques for determining specific analytes. Vodkas are produced on a very large scale by various manufacturers, by different production methods and from diverse raw materials. J Agric Food Chem 57:10489–10496, Kokkinofta R, Petrakis PV, Mavromoustakos T, Theocharis CR (2003) Authenticity of the traditional cypriot spirit “Zivania” on the basis of metal content using a combination of coupled plasma spectroscopy and statistical analysis. Formaldehyde is an irritating and carcinogenic substance so investigation of its content in spirit-based beverages is very important. 2. Source: The Chemistry of Vodka – Structure, Additives, and Impurities, Compound Interest. Ethanol and methanol have similar physicochemical properties and are present as by-products after distillation (Jurgen, Fotis, & Dirk, 2010). Vodka is mostly ethyl alcohol and water. It occurred to be superior to traditional ICP-MS due to lower limit of detection. Four vodkas fulfilling the standards and nine vodkas departing from the standards were selected. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? 2012/05/B/ST4/01984 from the National Science Centre of Poland. Examples include ethanol, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol. Vodka was also among the analysed alcohols. Ten brands produced from ethanol of different quality, diluted with various water types and containing defined additives, e.g. As an isopropyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, it is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol, where the alcohol carbon atom is attached to two other carbon atoms. Mendeleev, the chemist who devised the periodic table, standardized the amount of ethyl alcohol-- or ethanol--in vodka when he was the Director of the Russian Bureau of Standards. The task of identifying different vodka types seems more difficult. (5.3 ± 0.1)H2O hydrate compared to pure ethanol−water at the same alcohol content. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine metals in vodkas (Lachenmeier et al. It happens that higher-quality alcohols are substituted with cheaper and lower-quality ones, or raw materials other than the required ones are used in the production of high-quality alcohols. As previously mentioned, vodkas are produced from various raw materials of agricultural origin such as grains and potatoes. If you make in a EU country, then you can add a small % of the chemicals you mention such as sugar, or citric acid or glycerol - then you can export that to the US. The data analysis was conducted by using partial least squares (PLS) regression, which allowed for distinguishing among the samples. Quantitative analyses of chemical components and sensory tests were carried out on vodka samples to test for stimulative taste of ethanol. However, these days vodka plays a main ingredient in many cocktails including Bloody Mary, Screwdriver, Sex on the … It also includes the methods for analysing vodkas, such as: using gas, ion and liquid chromatography coupled with different types of detectors, electronic nose, electronic tongue, conductivity measurements, isotope analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, near infrared spectroscopy, spectrofluorometry and mass spectrometry. Vodka is a Russian invention and is the most popular drink in that country. When one runs out of juice, the other can still keep running, but this causes it to leak, eventually damaging electronic devices and creating a health hazard. When did organ music become associated with baseball? Vodka is the most popular alcoholic beverage in Poland, Russia and other Eastern European countries, made from ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin that has been produced via fermentation of potatoes, grains or other agricultural products. Due to the costs of alcohol production and prospective revenue from alcohol sales, the cases of falsification of alcohol-based products are frequent. Vodkas are the most frequently consumed spirit-based beverages, particularly in Eastern Europe (Hollensen 2007). The analysis of alcohol used in vodka production encompasses a sensory evaluation, the measurement of alcohol content, and a detailed chemical composition analysis. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used for distinguishing the vodkas made in Russia from those produced in other countries. Mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode was utilized to analyse ethanol, sugar and tartaric acid content in selected alcohol-based beverages including vodka. 2003; Sowiński et al. NIR and Raman spectroscopies can be employed to determine falsification without destroying the sample. ICP-MS is a very sensitive technique with high precision, which can be employed to make concurrent determinations of multiple elements and selective determinations of specific isotopes of the same element in complex matrices. 29. Besides authentication of vodka brands, scientists also check vodkas for possible falsification. Vodka is the most popular alcoholic beverage in Poland, Russia and other Eastern European countries. I have a bottle of expensive, fruit-infused vodka that was first opened two years ago and has been kept in climate-controlled storage, half-empty, with its original cork seal, ever since. The chemical composition of ethanol can be represented either as a 1) molecular formula or as a 2) structural formula. So what makes one vodka special and another one not so special? Pour terminer, la Vodka passe par des filtres à charbon pour lui donner son aspect final. L, 16–54, Reshetnikova VN, Filatova EA, Kuznetsov VV (2007) Identification of raw materials for the production of vodkas based on the results of gas–liquid chromatographic analysis with the use of fuzzy logic. Exp. All the aforementioned factors influence the quality of products and, as a consequence, their price. 2006). The tank was supplied with a cap or glass lid. All of … The chemical composition analysis can be conducted be means of, inter alia, chromatography and spectrometry as well as o ther techniques. A study of the chemical structure of vodka vs ethanol has show that the difference between the two is the presence of water in vodka and the way the water mixes with the ethanol molecules in solution. Russian vodka According to the definition in GOST R 51355-99, vodka is an alcoholic beverage produced by treating a water-alcohol solution having alcohol content 40.0 to 45.0, 50.0 or 56.0% containing or not containing additional ingredients with an adsorbent followed by filtration. Besides gas chromatography, ion chromatography was also applied to identify vodkas. The study employed gas chromatography (GC-FID), while the data were processed by using fuzzy logic. This technique allows faster analysis than in the case of using SPME, thanks to the exclusion of preliminary preparation of the samples via solid-phase microextraction technique. Department of Analytical Chemistry, The Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza St., 80-233, Gdansk, Poland, Paulina Wiśniewska, Magdalena Śliwińska, Tomasz Dymerski, Waldemar Wardencki & Jacek Namieśnik, You can also search for this author in Both these techniques allowed the ethanol content determination with only a slight deviation from the true value (Nordon et al. Diethyl phthalate is applied as ethyl alcohol denaturing agent. What does contingent mean in real estate? A total of 13 samples were analysed, which included three samples purchased at the grocery stores in Stavropol, one reference sample purchased legally in the store in the city, and nine samples bought from individual home owners by the agents from the Kryzyl distillery. The methodologies used in these analyses were based on the AMPHORA (Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance) methodologies, which were developed for analyses of unrecorded alcohols [ 23 – 26 ]. 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