Hence, for both Ricoeur and hermeneutics experience and language is co-emergent. Advantages and Disadvantages of Interpretivism Main disadvantages associated with interpretivism relate to subjective nature of this approach and great room for bias on behalf of researcher. Epub 2019 Feb 5. IPA involves a two-stage interpretation process whereby the researcher attempts to interpret how the participants make sense of their experience. IPA has emerged by identifying more strongly with hermeneutic traditions and utilizing the works of Heideger, Merleau-Ponty, and Sartre to explore and interpret personal lived experience of the participants. Background: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA); Phenomenology; Qualitative research. All Published work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Copyright © 2020 All rights reserved. Phenomenology is an approach began by Edmund Husserl and later developed by Martin Heidegger that seeks to study the lived human experiences and the way things are perceived and appear to the consciousness [1,2,10]. This is a methodology discussion that compares and contrasts IPA with other phenomenological approaches. Moreover, qualitative research can be used to explore less known or less understood topics or phenomenon to help bring to the forefront unexpected knowledge. Furthermore, Heidegger illuminates that our being in the world presents us with fundamental interpretative situation that compels us to ask questions about our world [10]. It is a relatively recent approach introduced by Smith in 1996 as he believed that … 'Like a human being, I was an equal, I wasn't just a patient': Service users' perspectives on their experiences of relationships with staff in mental health services.  |  Central issues of Satre’s work also covered human freedom and responsibility and the psychology of human action [15]. For example, Heidegger’s and Sartre’s phenomenology are focused on existentialism, and Merleu Ponty’s centres on embodiment [1].  |  The first-person approach incorporates concrete narrative descriptions of momentous events with theoretical discussion and/or literary flourish thus, catapulting personal reflection to a detailed and deep analysis that embellishes experiences [2]. Its emphasis on convergence and divergence of experiences, as well as its mission in examining detailed and nuanced analysis of the lived experience of small number participants [1], is particularly appealing to many researchers. This paper will explore the scope of IPA by presenting the methodological framework and a step-by-step description on how to con-duct an IPA study. Thus, making sense of the respondents’ narratives requires the IPA researcher to engage in close interpretation, but the researcher may not necessarily be conscious of his/her preconceptions beforehand. Furthermore, the approach is suitable when a detailed in-depth view of a phenomenon is needed to explore a complex process and to illuminate the multifaceted nature of human experience [4]. Service user involvement enhanced the research quality in a study using interpretative phenomenological analysis - the power of multiple perspectives. In reflexive-relational approaches, data and/or meanings are seen to emerge out of the context or dialogue between the researcher and the participant who is regarded as co-researcher in the embodied dialogical encounter. Pain as an assault on the self: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the psychological impact of chronic back pain. Qualitative research explores and understands the meanings people assign to their experiences [4,5]. Context: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has become a dominant qualitative research methodology in many academic disciplines. Though such interest has also contributed to the proliferation of the approach with little consensus of what constitutes the methodology. Moreover, phenomenological research is suitable with the most eloquent individuals [7]. But in their rebuttal of this criticism, they accept that meaning making takes place in the context of narratives, discourse, metaphors etc., and whilst the primary purposes of IPA are to gain insight into experience, it is always intertwined with language [1]. Finally, the assertion that IPA is concerned with cognition exposes it to criticism because some aspects of phenomenology are not compatible with cognition and the role of cognition in phenomenology is not properly understood [7] However, Smith et al. However, it has methodological limitations and need to be considered. 2006 Jul;55(2):215-29. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03898.x. IPA is an integrative hermeneutic phenomenology [2] first proposed by Jonathan Smith [3] in a paper that argued for an experiential appro… 6 Considering the efficacy of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) as a means to reveal teachers‟ implicit theories of learning. Moreover, the interpretive nature of the approach enables the researcher to derive insights from the respondents by employing curiosity, open-mindedness, empathy, and flexibility to listen to people narrating their stories in their own natural settings to identify how their experiences and behaviours are shaped by the context of their social, cultural, economic and historical worlds [2]. IPA is particularly attractive because of its commitment to explore, describe, interpret, and situate the participants’ sense making of their experiences [1,12]. Qualitative inquiries seek to shed light on meanings that are less perceptible. 2020 Jan 31;21(1):61. doi: 10.1186/s12891-020-3055-5. NLM They also seek to investigate complexities of our social world. J Adv Nurs. Researcher reflexivity and researcher-participant (inter-)subjectivity is celebrated. The psychosocial and service delivery impact of genomic testing for inherited retinal dystrophies. Analysis. Thus, one important theoretical touchstone for IPA is phenomenology, which originated with Husserl's attempts to … 2014 Sep;22(1):20-5. doi: 10.7748/nr.22.1.20.e1277. Bias Like Husserl, researchers primarily seek to capture the participants’ experiences of a phenomenon by bracketing their fore-knowledge [1]. This paper has provided a valuable contribution to our understanding of IPA, future researchers who are motivated in providing interesting and detailed insights into the subjective lived experiences of people [1] might consider IPA as their preferred research methodology. Specific design features of an interpretative phenomenological analysis study. The research questions determine the data-collecting strategies. Firstly, IPA like many phenomenological studies gives unsatisfactory recognition to the integral role of language [7]. Yet, the critical unanswered question is whether both the participants and researchers have the requisite communication skills to successfully communicate the nuances of experiences. This particular research method assesses how respondents in the course of an interview make sense of questions and comments raised in relation to events and actions in their lives. Conducting phenomenological research: Rationalizing the methods and rigour of the phenomenology of practice. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. The lessons IPA researchers can take from Merleau-Ponty’s work is how he portrays the vital role the body plays in knowing about the world. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has become a dominant qualitative research methodology in many academic disciplines. Given a scenario or a rocket launch system. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of delusions in people with Parkinson’s disease. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and limitations of IPA which has risen in popularity in many academic disciplines due to its useful methodology in studying existential experience [2]. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) is concerned with the detailed examination of personal lived experience. Narrative analysis is a first-person account by respondents of their experience in relation to a nominated subject. Solution dfdaxy dfdayx. IPA employs four influential philosophers: Heidegger, Schleiermacher, Ricoeur and Gadamer to advance the thesis of hermeneutic phenomenology [1]. Husserl’s thesis on phenomenology has been criticized by many for being too philosophical, conceptual and difficult to decipher [1]. Thus, research findings are suffused with philosophical, theoretical, literary and interpretative lenses resulting to an aspect of human experience grounded on unrestricted imagination and metaphorical sensibility. IPA has been criticized for being riddled with ambiguities as well as lacking standardization [21]. Smith argues that his idiographic and inductive method, which seeks to explore participants’ personal lived experiences, is But the increasingly large quantity of publications that outline the theoretical, methodological and philosophical underpinnings of IPA has been pointed out to the critics [1]. Nurse Res. His work also prompts IPA researchers to be reflexive in their interpretation in relation to their fore-understanding of the phenomenon being investigated [1]. But the criticism could be seen as elitist, suggesting only those having access to the right level of fluency are allowed to describe their experiences. Your blog sums up the steps in Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis really well. This study has argued that qualitative research in general and IPA specifically offers flexible and versatile approach to understanding people’s experiences. Objective: This paper is aimed at providing an overview and limitations of IPA. The uniqueness of the qualitative inquiry is its experiential understanding of the complex interrelationships among phenomena and its direct interpretation of events. The notion is that there is a phenomenon out there ready to be explored but requiring the detective work of the researcher to bring it to light using his/her prior experience, assumptions or preconceptions to make sense of the experience once it is revealed [1]. The approach has its roots in psychology and recognises the central role of the analyst in understanding the experiences of participants. Therefore, the emphasis is upon seeking to explore the patterns of unanticipated and expected relationships in cases or phenomena [8,9]. In Sartre’s view, human nature is more about becoming than being therefore; there is freedom of choice as well as responsibilities for our own actions. Data is analyzed inductively to understand the meanings the participants assign to their experiences. 2018 Jun 1;5(3):442-449. doi: 10.1002/nop2.152. It is important to note this disadvantages occur due to . BMC Palliat Care. It will also discuss the advantages and challenges of utilizing IPA during the doctoral years. Whilst phenomenology as philosophy is associated with introspection allowing the philosopher to explore his or her experiences through ‘phenomenological meditation’, phenomenology as a research approach relies on the accounts of participants and the experiences of researchers. It is therefore emic and idiographic. In relation to IPA, the ‘part’ corresponds to the encounter with the participant in a research project, and the ‘whole’ the drawing of knowledge and experience of the researcher [1]. Qualitative research includes ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory and historical research. Findings Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) on the series of interviews with the researchers resulted in the emergence of three (3) master themes. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. However, a modern way of conducting a phenomenological research is IPA. While there are a number of uses with phenomenological research, you can’t say there aren’t some notable downsides: 1. Together, these authors have formulated the argument that we are embedded in the world of language and social relationships and that we cannot escape the historical accuracy of all understanding [2]. As already noted, Merleau-Ponty focused much of his work on subjectivity, embodiment and our relationship to the world [1]. In the first-person approach, researchers use their own subjective experiences and descriptive or hermeneutic approaches to examine the quality and essences of a phenomenon. Consequently, readers who are planning to adopt IPA are advised to take active steps to give voice to the experiences of the participants, followed by sufficient interpretation of their narratives. Sartre’s work offers IPA researchers the most comprehensive glimpse of what a phenomenological analysis of human experience should look like in the context of personal, social relationships, and moral encounters [1]. A sharp departure from the above is the ideas from hermeneutic or interpretative approach which is based on the principles that reduction is impossible and thus, rejects the idea of suspending personal opinions in favour of interpretation of experiences. Subjectivity Establishing the reliability and validity of the approaches can be challenging, which makes subjective research difficult. Interpretative phenomenological analysis is discussed and critiqued in relation to other phenomenological approaches; benefits, potential limitations and rigour of studies using the method are explored. It was developed by Jonathan Smith, Professor of Psychology, Birkbeck University of London. IPA is a qualitative research approach. However, two broad categories can be identified: descriptive and hermeneutic. Therefore, given that the basis of IPA is the examination of the thing itself; thoughtful focus and the careful examination of experience in the way it occurs to the participants proposed by Husserl is essential [1,2]. content analysis covering a spectrum of approaches ranging from empirical phenomenological psychology to hermeneutical-phenomenological psychology, depending on the data source (Holloway & Wheeler 1996:2-3; Van der Wal 1999:55). BERA 2009 Research SIG. Significantly, Heidegger and Gadamer believed that all understanding assumes an essential element of presumptions and interpretation [15]. Thus, Heidegger’s work invites IPA researchers to ground their stance in the lived world of things, people, relationships and language, and question knowledge outside interpretation because interpretation of people’s meaning-making of their experience is fundamental to phenomenological inquiry. "My life is under control with these medications": an interpretative phenomenological analysis of managing chronic pain with opioids. Aim: The aim of this article is to examine the approach of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and to add to discussions regarding the contribution that the approach can make to healthcare research. As seen from the above, various phenomenological inspired research approaches use different approaches ranging from pure description to interpretation [11]. The key philosophers of this approach are Husserl, Heidegger, Sarte, Merleu-Ponty, Schutz, van den Berg, and two contemporary philosophers: Dahlberg and Ashworth [2]. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) is a distinctive approach to conducting qualitative research being used with increasing frequency in published studies. This study provides insights into this growing area of qualitative research approach. 2018 Jul;74(7):1723-1734. doi: 10.1111/jan.13569. Presentation to the School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Sheffield. of both focus groups and analysis of … tative phenomenological analysi s (IPA) in their research. Aim: 2:52. doi: 10.4172/2472-1654.100093. Critical appraisal of rigour in interpretive phenomenological nursing research. eCollection 2018 Jul. The dynamism of interpretation and reflection resounds excellently with the hermeneutic circle model that deals with the dynamic relationship between the ‘part’ and the ‘whole’ at numerous levels for a holistic analytical interpretation. Secondly, questions have been raised whether IPA can accurately capture the experiences and meanings of experiences rather than opinions of it. Therefore, the researcher intuitively seeks to probe the surface meanings by reading in between the lines for deeper interpretation [2]. Implications for research and practice: Furthermore, as a qualitative research approach, IPA gives researchers the best opportunity to understand 1, pp. The relevant literatures on the theoretical underpinnings of IPA are examined. There are many benefits that employees can avail from the flexitime. In that Dasein is thrown into this pre-existing world of people and objects, language and culture, and cannot be meaningfully detached from it. But, Smith et al. Hermeneutic phenomenology therefore embraces the literary and poetic aesthetic application of language that emanates from the process and product of research [10]. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Then the issues and advantages of thematic analysis are discussed. There are multiple and diverse epistemological roots for qualitative approaches, but they converge in the context of how meaning making takes place [6,7]. This may be particularly the case when interviewing people about sensitive issues such as mental illness. Results: The article illuminates that IPA represents a highly useful methodology in providing a rich and nuance insight into the experiences of research participants. The desire to understand the theoretical underpinnings of this research approach is evident. with an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach, the advantageous elements of the study quadruple because of the bonding relationship that the approach allows for the researchers to develop with their research participants. 2019 Jul;10(3):425-434. doi: 10.1007/s12687-019-00406-x. IPA is phenomenological in that it wishes to explore an individual’s personal perception or account of an event or state as opposed to attempting to produce an objective record of the event or state itself. IPA has two primary aims: to look in detail at how someone makes sense of life experience, and to give detailed interpretation of the account to understand the experience [1]. Researchers are required to carefully follow this idiographic approach throughout the analytic process for a meticulous detailed examination of the convergence and divergence between the participants’ experiences. Advantages and disadvantages of positivism and phenomenology.  |  Epub 2018 Apr 17. But its structured approach and qualitative orientation seems to appeal to other disciplines in human, social and health care research [1,2]. That said, he acknowledges that certain human complexities require the individual’s life, his biographical history, and the social situation to be taken into consideration. IPA is an integrative hermeneutic phenomenology [2] first proposed by Jonathan Smith [3] in a paper that argued for an experiential approach in psychology that could equally dialogue with mainstream psychology. This approach strives to find the intentional relationship between the conscious, social, perceptual, and practical experiences by analyzing time, space, and the taken-for granted presentation of experience. IPA allows the researcher to gain a phenomenological account of participant’s experiences. Others also point out that it is mostly descriptive and not sufficiently interpretative [12,22,23]. Furthermore, Sartre’s existential phenomenology is about understanding human existence as opposed to understanding the world. Achieving a greater understanding of experiences in health care and illness can improve service provision. To identify core structures and features of human experience, Husserl encouraged the questioning of natural attitude through phenomenological reflection and dissuaded things being taken for granted. ... Flexitime Advantages And Disadvantages 1689 Words | 7 Pages. 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